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સ્વસ્તિકના ચિહ્નને હડઘૂત કરનારા અમેરિકનો સમજી લે સ્વસ્તિકનું વિશ્વ્વવ્યાપી મહત્ત્વ


સ્વસ્તિકના ચિહ્નને હડઘૂત કરનારા અમેરિકનો સમજી લે સ્વસ્તિકનું વિશ્વ્વવ્યાપી મહત્ત્વ
હોટલાઇન – ભાલચંદ્ર જાની

સુખ અને સમૃદ્ધિના પ્રતિક સમાન સ્વસ્તિકને ઘરના બારણે, ઉંબરે કે આંગણામાં દોરવામાં આવે છે. તેમજ કોઈ પણ શુભ પ્રસંગ કે મંગળ પ્રસંગમાં પણ સ્વસ્તિક દોરવામાં આવે છે. ભારતીય પરંપરા પ્રમાણે સ્વસ્તિકને મંગળ અને સૌભાગ્યનું પ્રતિક ગણવામાં આવે છે. અમેરિકામાં હમણાં એક નવો વિવાદ શરૂ થયો છે. સ્વસ્તિકના ચિહ્ન ધરાવતા ટીશર્ટ, જ્વેલરી કે બીજું કોઈ વસ્ત્ર વેંચો અથવા પહેરીને ફરો તો પોલીસના ભંવા ઊંચા ચઢી જાય છે. સપ્તાહપૂર્વે અમેરિકામાં આવી એક ઘટના બની તેથી હિન્દુ સમાજમાં રોષની લાગણી ફેલાઈ હતી. બન્યું એવું કે બુ્રકલિનના એક સ્ટોરમાં સ્વસ્તિકના પ્રતિક જેવી ઇયરંિગ્સ વેંચાતી હતી તેની સામે સ્થાનિક સત્તાવાળાઓએ વિરોધ નોંધાવ્યો હતો. આ ઇયરંિગ્સ નાઝીઓનું પ્રતીક નથી પરંતુ પ્રાચીન ભારતીય પવિત્ર ચિહ્ન છે એવી સ્પષ્ટતા છતાં સ્થાનિક સત્તાવાળાઓએ ન્યૂયોર્કના આ સ્ટોરને સ્વસ્તિકવાળા ઇયરંિગ્સ નહીં વેચવાની તાકીદ કરી હતી. ન્યૂયોર્ક સિટિ-કાઉન્સિલમેન સ્ટીવ લેવિને બુ્રકલીનમાં આ સ્ટોરની મુલાકાત લઇને એની માલિક યંગ સૂક કીમને તાકીદ કરી હતી કે આ ઇયરંિગ્સ વેચવાં નહીં. પેલી દુકાનમાલિકણ તો ડઘાઈ જ ગઈ. માત્ર એક દિવસ પહેલાં ન્યૂયોર્કના પોલિટિશિયન અને ધારાશાસ્ત્રીઓએ ફોક્સન્યૂઝ ડૉટ કોમને કહ્યું હતું કે આ ઇયરંિગ્સ એન્ટિ-સેમિટિઝમ યહૂદી વિરોધી છે અને ન્યૂયોર્ક, ન્યૂ જર્સી અને મેનહટ્ટનના કાઉન્સિલ પ્રમુખ સ્કોટ સ્ટીંગરે કહ્યું હતું કે આ ઇયરંિગ્સ વેચવાનું તાબડતોબ બંધ થવું જોઇએ. આ ઇયરંિગ્સનું વેચાણ ચાલુ રહે તો એ ‘હેટ ક્રાઇમ’ (ધિક્કારની લાગણી ફેલાવવાનો ગુનો ) ગણાશે. ખરું કહેવાય! કોઈના ધાર્મિક પ્રતિક સામે આટલો સજ્જડ વિરોધ. યુરોપ-અમેરિકામાં સ્વસ્તિકના ચિહ્નને જુલ્મી હિટલર સાથે સંકળાયેલું પ્રતિક ગણીને તેનો વિરોધ થાય છે એ તો જાણે સમજ્યા. પરંતુ વિશ્વ્વના સૌથી પ્રાચીન, સનાતન, મહાન ધર્મ હંિદુઓમાં સ્વસ્તિકનું મહત્ત્વ ખૂબ ઊંચું છે એ ભૂલાવું ન જોઈએ. સ્વસ્તિક એ વિશ્વનું સૌથી પ્રાચીન પ્રતીક છે. છેલ્લા પાંચ હજાર કરતાં વઘુ વર્ષોથી તે સનાતન હિન્દુ ધર્મનું પણ એક પ્રતીક છે. સંસ્કૃત શબ્દ ‘સ્વેસ્તિકા’ ઉપરથી સ્વસ્તિક નામ પડ્યું છે. ૐ સ્વસ્તિન ઈન્દ્રો વૃઘ્ધશ્રવાહાઃ                                             સ્વસ્તિન ઃ પૂષા વિશ્વવેદા ઃ                                             સ્વસ્તિનસ્તાર્ક્ષ્યો અરિષ્ટનેમિ ઃ                                             સ્વસ્તિનો બૃહસ્પતિર્દધાતુ. હિન્દુઓના કોઈપણ શુભ કાર્યના પ્રારંભે આ સ્વસ્તિ મંત્રનું પઠન કરવામાં આવે છે. આ મંત્રનો અર્થ છે કીર્તિવાન ઈન્દ્રદેવ અમારું  સદા કલ્યાણ કરો, સુવિજ્ઞ સૂર્યનારાયણ અમારું સદાય શ્રેય કરો, સુદર્શન ધારી વિષ્ણુ ભગવાન અને ગરૂડજી અમારું શ્રેય કરો તથા ગુરુદેવ બૃહસ્પતિ અમારું કલ્યાણ કરો. સુખ અને સમૃદ્ધિના પ્રતિક સમાન સ્વસ્તિકને ઘરના બારણે, ઉંબરે કે આંગણામાં દોરવામાં આવે છે. તેમજ કોઈ પણ શુભ પ્રસંગ કે મંગળ પ્રસંગમાં પણ સ્વસ્તિક દોરવામાં આવે છે. ભારતીય પરંપરા પ્રમાણે સ્વસ્તિકને મંગળ અને સૌભાગ્યનું પ્રતિક ગણવામાં આવે છે. તેમજ સ્વસ્તિકને સૂર્ય અને વિષ્ણુનું ચિહ્ન પણ માનવામાં આવે છે. ૠગ્વેદમાં શાંતનુનો  ઉલ્લેખ કરવામાં આવ્યો છે. શાંતનુ સ્વસ્તિકના દેવતા છે. શાસ્ત્રો અનુસાર આ દેવતાને મનોવાંછિત ફળ આપનાર અને સંપૂર્ણ જગતનું કલ્યાણ કરનાર અને દેવોને અમરત્વ પ્રદાન કરવાવાળા દેવતા ગણવામાં આવે છે. ‘સિઘ્ધાન્તસાર’ પ્રમાણે સ્વસ્તિકને બ્રહ્માંડનું પ્રતિક  માનવામાં આવે છે. સ્વસ્તિકના મઘ્ય ભાગને વિષ્ણુ ભગવાનની નાભિ, ચારે રેખાઓને બ્રહ્માજીના ચાર મુખ, ચાર હાથ અને ચાર વેદો સાથે સરખાવવામાં આવે છે. દેવતાઓની આસપાસમાં જે આભામંડળ રચાય છે તે સ્વસ્તિક આકાર હોવાના કારણે સ્વસ્તિકને શાસ્ત્રોમાં શુભ માનવામાં આવે છે. તર્કથી પણ આ વાત સાબિત કરી શકાય છે. શ્રૃતિ, અનુભૂતિ તથા યુક્તિ આ ત્રણેય સ્વસ્તિકનું સમર્થન કરે છે જેનાથી પ્રયાગરાજમાં થતા સંગમ જેવો સંગમ રચાય છે. દિશા મુખ્યત્વે ચાર છે. સ્વસ્તિકની ઊભી અને આડી રેખા દોરીને જે ધન (+) કે વત્તાકાર જેવો બને છે. તે મુખ્ય ચાર દિશાઓ માનવામાં આવે છે, તેથી જ સ્વસ્તિકને મંગળ અને કલ્યાણનું પ્રતિક માનવામાં આવે છે. તેથી જ તે દેવતાઓના તેજના રૂપમાં શુભત્વ દેનાર છે તેમ મનાય છે. એ અદ્દશ્ય શક્તિઓની સહાયતા પ્રાપ્ત કરવા માટે એ પથ્થરયુગના માનવીઓ વિવિધ પ્રકારના પ્રતીકો મંત્રીત યંત્રો, તાવિજ, માદળિયા વગેરેનો ઉપયોગ કરતા. તેઓ જે પ્રતીકોનો ઉપયોગ કરતા તે પ્રતીકોમાં એક પ્રતીક ‘સ્વસ્તિક’ રહેતો હતો. આ બાબતોને ઘ્યાનમાં રાખીને વિશ્વ વિખ્યાત ઈતિહાસકાર એચ.જી.વેલ્સે પોતાના એક પુસ્તકમાં એક ખાસ નૂકતેચીનીમાં લખ્યું છે કે ‘‘આ નાનકડું પ્રતીક વિશ્વભરમાં કોઈને કોઈ રીતે પ્રચલિત છે’’ આથી આગળ વધતા વેલ્સ જણાવે છે કે વિશ્વમાં અન્ય એક પણ પ્રતીક એવુ ંનથી જેના ‘સ્વસ્તિક’ જેટલા અસંખ્ય અર્થઘટનો કરવામાં આવ્યા હોય.  જો કે ‘સ્વસ્તિક’ના  ઉદ્‌ભવ અંગેનું રહસ્ય અનેક સદીઓ બાદ પણ હજી સુધી ઉકેલાયું નથી. ગ્રેટ બ્રિટનમાં ‘સ્વસ્તિક’ને ફિલફોટ કહેવામાં આવે છે. ત્યાં આ ફિલફોટનો અર્થ ચાર પગવાળું (ચાર પાંખિયા) એવો કરવામાં આવે છે. સ્કેન્ડીનેવિયામાં ‘સ્વસ્તિક’ને ઈશ્વરના હથોડાના પ્રતીક તરીકે જોવામાં આવે છે. જપાનમાં તેને મનજી તરીકે ઓળખવામાં આવે છે તથા તે બુઘ્ધની પ્રતિમાઓ ઉપર જોવા મળે છે. જ્યારે બૌઘ્ધ યાત્રાળુઓ જપાનના પવિત્ર મનાંતા ફ્‌યૂજીયામા ખાતેના પર્વત પર જાય છે.  ત્યારે યાત્રાળુઓને ત્યાં તેમની ધાર્મિક વિધિ અનુસાર એક કપમાં પાણી આપવાાં આવે છે.  આ કપ ઉપર ‘સ્વસ્તિક’નું ચિહ્ન હોય છે ત્યાં સ્વસ્તિકના પ્રતીકને જીવનના જળ તરીકે માનવામાં  આવે છે. ચીનમાં સ્વસ્તિકને સમુદ્રનો પ્રતિનિધિ માનવામાં આવે છે. આ ઉપરાંત સ્વસ્તિકના ઘણા નમુનાઓ ઈજીપ્ત, ભારત, પર્શિયા, યુરોપના કેટલાક  દેશો, ફ્રાન્સ, જર્મની સ્કેન્ડીનેવિયા, સ્કોટલેન્ડ, આયર્લેન્ડ તથા અન્ય કેટલાક દેશોમાં મળી આવ્યા છે. મઘ્ય અને દક્ષિણ અમેરિકામાં ઘણા સ્થળો એ તે પથ્થર પર કોતરાયેલી સ્થિતિમાં પણ મળી આવે છે. જો કે અહીંના પથ્થરો પર તેને કયા યુગમાં પાષાણ પર કોતરવામાં આવ્યા હશે તે અંગે કંઈ જ જાણવા મળતું નથી. ગોરાઓએ જ્યારે અમેરિકામાં પોતાનો વ્યવસાય શરૂ કર્યો તે દરમ્યાન માટીના ઢગલામાંથી ગોરાઓને સ્વસ્તિકનું પ્રતીક મળી આવ્યું હતું. આ સાથે જ ભગવાન બુઘ્ધની એક મૂર્તિ પણ મળી આવી હતી. આ બાબત  એવું સ્પષ્ટ સૂચવે છે કે બૌદ્ધ મીશનરીઓ કોલંબસ કરતાં પહેલા અમેરિકી ભૂમિ પર પહોંચ્યા હશે. આમ સ્વસ્તિકને જીવન પ્રકાશ, સૂર્ય, આકાશ, વાયુ,  અગ્નિ અને પાણીના પ્રતીક તરીકે નિરખવામાં આવે છે. આ ઉપરાંત આ શુભ પ્રતીક બ્રહ્મા સારંગપાણિ વિષ્ણુ અને પીનાકપાણી ભગવાન શિવનું પણ પ્રતિનિધિત્વ કરે છે. તથા ભગવાન બુઘ્ધનું પણ પ્રતિનિધિત્વ કરે છે. બૌદ્ધ ધર્મના લોકો ‘સ્વસ્તિક’ને બુદ્ધ ભગવાનના હૃદયની મુદ્રા તરીકે ઓળખાવે છે. બૌદ્ધ ધર્મો જણાવે છે કે સમ્રાટ અશોેકે બૌદ્ધ ધર્મ અંગિકાર કર્યો હતો અને તેના પથ્થરના શિલાલેખમાં તેને એક માત્ર સ્વસ્તિકના પ્રતીકને મહત્તા આપી હતી. એવા પણ પૂરાવાઓ મળ્યા છે કે અગાઉના ખ્રીસ્તી ધર્મના લોકો સ્વસ્તિકે તેના ધર્મના વિશેષ પ્રતીક તરીકે  ઉપયોગ કરતા હતા.  ખ્રીસ્તીઓના ચર્ચમાં વિવિધ ચીજો પર સ્વસ્તિકનું પ્રતીક જોવા મળે છે. ખાસ કરીને ચર્ચની બહારના બેલ ઉપર આ પ્રતિક અંકિત થયેલું હોય છે.ખ્રીસ્તીઓ માને  છે કે સ્વસ્તિક એ આત્માની ચાર તબક્કાની પ્રગતિનું પ્રતિક છે. ધર્મની સ્થાપનાના શરૂઆતના સમયમાં ખ્રીસ્તી સ્વસ્તિકના સામાન્ય સ્વરૂપને ઈશ્વર તરફની ગતિ તરીકે માનતા હતા જ્યારે ઊંધા સ્વસ્તિકને ઈશ્વરથી દૂર થવાની ગતિ તરીકે તેઓ મનાતા હતા. જર્મનીના એક સમયના સરમુખત્યાર ઍડોલ્ફ હિટલરે તેની નેશનલ સોસ્યાલિસ્ટ પાર્ટી માટે ૧૯૧૯માં એક બેનર તૈયાર કરાવ્યું હતું. આ બેનરમાં તેમણે સ્વસ્તિકને ઉંધા સ્વરૂપમાં મૂકાવ્યો હતો. તેણે તેના લશ્કરના જવાનો અને અધિકારીઓના લશ્કરી પોશાક ઉપર પણ સફેદ વર્તુળમાં કાળા સ્વસ્તિકના ઉંધા સ્વરૂપને લોગોની જેમ મૂકાવ્યો હતો. તેના લશ્કરના ઘ્વજમાં પણ સફેદ વર્તુળમાં ઉંધો કાળો સ્વસ્તિક તેણે ચિતરાવ્યો હતો. નાઝીઓએ સ્વસ્તિકના પ્રતીકને આમ ઉલ્ટા સ્વરૂપમાં મૂક્યું તે તેમના માટે કાયમી ધોરણે અશુભ સાબિત થયું હતું. દોઢ દાયકા પૂર્વે બ્રિટનના યુવાન પ્રિન્સ હેરીએ ફેન્સી ડ્રેસની પાર્ટીમાં એવો પોશાક પહેર્યો હતો કે જેની બાંય પર ભારતીય સંસ્કૃતિના પ્રતિક સ્વસ્તિકને અંકિત કરવામાં આવ્યો હતો. પણ સ્વસ્તિક ધરાવતા પ્રિન્સના પોશાકને જોતાં જ બ્રિટનની પ્રજાને હિટલરના અત્યાચાર યાદ આવ્યા. આ પાર્ટીના અહેવાલ અને પોશાકમાં સ્વસ્તિકના ચિહ્નની બાબતને બ્રિટનનાં અખબારોએ પહેલે પાને ચગાવી. સમગ્ર બ્રિટનમાં સારા એવા પ્રમાણમાં ્‌સ્વસ્તિક વિશે વિવાદ જાગ્યો અને યુરોપના દેશોમાં તેના પર પ્રતિબંધ મૂકવા સુધીની વાતો થવા લાગી. ત્યારે બ્રિટનમાં વસેલા હિન્દુઓએ તેનો ઉગ્ર વિરોધ કર્યો હતો અને ભારતીય સંસ્કૃતિમાં સ્વસ્તિકનું મહત્ત્વ કેટલું છે તે વિશેની જનજાગૃતિ માટેના પ્રયાસ કર્યા હતા. તિબેટના લોકોમાં તેમના શરીર પર સ્વસ્તિકના છુંદણા કરાવવાની પ્રથા છે. તેઓ શરીર પર સ્વસ્તિકના છુંદણાને અત્યંત શુભ અને પવિત્ર નિશાની ગણે છે તથા તિબેટની મહિલાઓ તેમના પેટીકોટ ઉપર  પણ સ્વસ્તિકની ડિઝાઈન મૂકાવે છે. જૈનોએ તો સ્વસ્તિકના આધારે જીવનના તત્ત્વજ્ઞાનને ઘડ્યું છે. જૈન ધર્મમાં સ્વસ્તિકની સાથે ત્રણ વર્તુળો એક બીજનો ચંદ્ર અને વઘુ એક વર્તુળને ઉમેરો કર્યો છે. સ્વસ્તિકમાં એકબીજાને છેદતી બે રેખાઓ સૂચવે છે કે ભૌતિક વિશ્વમાં આત્માના ચાર તબક્કાઓ અસ્તિત્વ ધરાવે છે. જેમાં વનસ્પતિ જીવન, પ્લાન્ટ અને પ્રાણી જીવન, માનવ જીવન સ્વર્ગીય દિવ્ય જીવનનો સમાવેશ કરવામાં આવ્યો છે. સ્વસ્તિક સાથેની વઘુ એક માન્યતા અનુસાર દરેક મનુષ્યએ ત્રણ આભૂષણો પ્રાપ્ત કરવાનો પ્રયત્ન કરવો જોઈએ. આ ત્રણ આભૂષણોમાં સાચી માન્યતા સાચું જ્ઞાન સારું વર્તનનો સમાવેશ થાય છે. જો માણસ પાસે આ ત્રણ આભૂષણો હોય તો તે આઘ્યાત્મિક રીતે વઘુને વઘુ સમૃદ્ધ થઈ શકે. કેટલાક વિદ્ધાનોના મતાનુસાર પ્રાચીનકાળમાં સ્વસ્તિકના આકારમાં કિલ્લા બાંધવામાં આવતા હતા. આમ સ્વસ્તિક એ સંરક્ષણનુ પણ  પ્રતીક છે. આ પ્રકારના કિલ્લાઓ જીતી લેવાનું દુશ્મનો માટે મુશ્કેલ બનતું. કારણ કે આ સ્વસ્તિક આકારના કિલ્લાના ચાર પૈકીનો એક દરવાજો દુશ્મન તોડે તો પણ અન્ય ત્રણ દરવાજા એટલે કે કિલ્લાનો ત્રણ ચર્તુથાંશ ભાગ સલામત રહે છે. સ્વસ્તિકના જુદા જુદા સ્વરૂપ હોય છે તે અનુસાર મહાભારત કાળમાં કુરુક્ષેત્રના યુઘ્ધ દરમ્યાન વિરોધી સેનાની સામે ઘડવામાં આવતા વિવિધ વ્યૂહો એ પણ સ્વસ્તિકના જ સ્વરૂપો હતા. આમાનો એક વ્યૂહ અત્યંત પ્રચલિત છે જે પાંડવ સેના સામે કૌરવ સેના- પતિ આચાર્ય દ્રોણે અમલમાં મૂક્યો હતો. જે ચક્રવ્યૂહના નામે આજે પણ પ્રચલિત છે. આ ચક્રવ્યૂહના ચક્રવાકમાં અર્જુન પુત્ર અભિમન્યુ અટવાઈ ગયો હતો. એકંદરે કહેવાનું તાત્પર્ય એ છે કે સ્વસ્તિક સુરક્ષાનું પણ પ્રતિક છે. સ્વસ્તિક અંગે વિશ્વમાં આજે એક વિપરિત માન્યતા પ્રવર્તતી હોવાનું પણ જણાવાય છે. જર્મનીના એક સમયના સરમુખત્યાર ઍડોલ્ફ હિટલરે તેની નેશનલ સોસ્યાલિસ્ટ પાર્ટી અને તેના નાઝી સૈન્ય માટે સ્વસ્તિકનો ઉલ્ટા સ્વરૂપમાં ઉપયોગ કર્યો ત્યારથી વિશ્વના અનેક દેશોમાં સ્વસ્તિકને ધર્મના પ્રતીક તરીકે ઓછું મહત્ત્વ મળતું થયું છે. તેમજ અનેક દેશો તેને માત્ર નાઝી સૈન્યના પ્રતિક તરીકે જ  જુવે છે. આમ છતાં ભારતમાં  સ્વસ્તિકનું ધાર્મિક મહત્ત્વ આજે પણ યથાવત્‌ છે. યુરોપ અને અમેરિકાના સત્તાવાળાઓએ હિટલરના સ્વસ્તિક તથા હંિદુઓના સાથિયા વચ્ચેનો તફાવત સમજી લેવો જોઈએ. જેથી આંધળે બહેરું કુંટાય નહીં.

Arya-And-Castes In Hindu Sanatan Dharma.


Arya means a noble person/ gentleman.
 If in behavior, speech, actions, one adheres to principles of vedas – is
civilized, affectionate to fellow people, not tempted to commit sins,
hygienic, promotes and propagates truth, etc – he or she is an Arya. Again
it is not a binary logic, but a continuous function.

2. English is a poor approximate of vedic language. But Brahmin, Kshatriya,
Vaishya, Shudra are names of varnas or classifications based on profession.
They have nothing to do with birth. Shudra is someone who could not get
 adequetly educated and hence incompetent to be in any of these professions.

People in knowledge based matters are Brahmins, those in state/defence level
 matters are Kshatriyas, those in financial/ economic jobs are Vaishyas and
 rest are Shudras.

3. These Varnas are nothing to do with presently used custom of surnames. In
 fact if you read Ramayan or Mahabharat or other texts of those times, you do
not find this tradition of First Name-Middle Name-Surname as nomenclature of
people.

I would refute the basis of argument that Arya word denotes parentage
in any manner.

1. Of course, family and parentage do have their role in determining
 sanskaars of a person. But that does not mean that someone from unidentified
parentage cannot be Arya. This imaginary casteism is one of the biggest
 reasons for our decadence. We foolishly expurged a large majority of our
 fellow brothers and sisters as Shudras and Achhoots on basis of their
unknown or questionable lineage or family.

2. The Arya has nothing to do with one’s gotra. Hardly any surname today
represents any Gotra. The gotra classification was to do with preventing
marriages between closed relatives.

3. Arya denotes a noble person. Family is only one among many ways to
ascertain if someone is noble. And to say that Shudra cannot become Brahmin
is again blatantly wrong. Brahmin is someone with knowledge. And Shudra
 means someone who could not become Brahmin, Kshatriya or Vaishya due to lack
 of edcation or training. So even a Shudra, after having gained knowledge
through efforts can become Brahmin.

4. Dwija means twice born. From birth everyone is Shudra. But after
 education, Brahmins, Kshatriya and Vaishya take another birth as skilled
humans. In other words, education gives them another birth as civilized
 people worthy of contributing to society. Thus they become Dwija – twice
born. Those who are unable to gain education lose this opportunity of new
birth and hence remain Shudra.

Thus an illiterate son of Brahmin is also shudra. And any shudra, after
having gained knowledge through his or her efforts can become a brahmin,
 vaishya or kshatriya. This has nothing to do with biological birth.

Until we are able to throw away this tail of birth based caste, we can never
 be a united front for vedic empire.

Lets embrace truth and reject the trash.

Arya-And-Castes In Hindu Sanatan Dharma.

is also available in English on http://agniveer.com/9/arya-and-castes/

प्रत्येक श्रेष्ठ और सुसभ्य मनुष्य आर्य है |

अपने आचरण, वाणी और कर्म में वैदिक सिद्धांतों का पालन करने वाले, शिष्ट, स्नेही, कभी पाप कार्य न करनेवाले, सत्य की उन्नति और प्रचार करनेवाले, आतंरिक और बाह्य शुचिता इत्यादि गुणों को सदैव धारण करनेवाले आर्य कहलाते हैं |

ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य और शूद्र यह चार वर्ण वास्तव में व्यक्ति को नहीं बल्कि गुणों को प्रदर्शित करते हैं. प्रत्येक मनुष्य में ये चारों गुण (बुद्धि, बल, प्रबंधन, और श्रम) सदा रहते हैं. आसानी के लिए जैसे आज पढ़ाने वाले को अध्यापक, रक्षा करने वाले को सैनिक, व्यवसाय करने वाले को व्यवसायी आदि कहते हैं वैसे ही पहले उन्हें क्रमशः ब्रह्मण, क्षत्रिय या वैश्य कहा गया और इनसे अलग अन्य काम करने वालों को शूद्र. अतः यह वर्ण व्यवस्था जन्म- आधारित नहीं है|

आजकल प्रचलित कुलनाम ( surname)  लगाने के रिवाज से इन वर्णों का कोई लेना-देना नहीं है | हमारे प्राचीन धर्मग्रन्थ रामायण, महाभारत या अन्य ग्रंथों में भी इस तरह से प्रथम नाम- मध्य नाम- कुलनाम लगाने का कोई चलन नहीं पाया जाता है और न ही आर्य शब्द किसी प्रकार की वंशावली को दर्शाता है|

निस्संदेह, परिवार तथा उसकी पृष्टभूमि का किसी व्यक्ति को संस्कारवान बनाने में महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है परंतु इससे कोई अज्ञात कुल का मनुष्य आर्य नहीं हो सकता यह तात्पर्य नहीं है | हमारे पतन का एक प्रमुख कारण है मिथ्या जन्मना जाति व्यवस्था जिसे हम आज मूर्खता पूर्वक अपनाये बैठे हैं और जिसके चलते हमने अपने समाज के एक बड़े हिस्से को अपने से अलग कर रखा है – उन्हें शूद्र या अछूत का दर्जा देकर – महज इसलिए कि हमें उनका मूल पता नहीं है | यह अत्यंत खेदजनक है |

आर्य शब्द किसी गोत्र से भी सरोकार नहीं रखता | गोत्र का वर्गीकरण नजदीकी संबंधों में विवाह से बचने के लिए किया गया था | प्रचलित कुलनामों का शायद ही किसी गोत्र से सम्बन्ध भी हो |

आर्य शब्द श्रेष्टता का द्योतक है | और किसी की श्रेष्ठता को जांचने में पारिवारिक पृष्ठभूमि कोई मापदंड हो ही नहीं सकता क्योंकि किसी चिकित्सक का बेटा केवल इसी लिए चिकित्सक नहीं कहलाया जा सकता क्योंकि उसका पिता चिकित्सक है, वहीँ दूसरी ओर कोई अनाथ बच्चा भी यदि पढ़ जाए तो चिकित्सक हो सकता है. ठीक इसी तरह किसी का यह कहना कि शूद्र ब्राह्मण नहीं बन सकता – सर्वथा गलत है |

ब्राह्मण का अर्थ है ज्ञान संपन्न व्यक्ति और जो शिक्षा या प्रशिक्षण के अभाव में ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय या वैश्य बनाने की योग्यता न रखता हो – वह शूद्र है |  परंतु शूद्र भी अपने प्रयत्न से ज्ञान और प्रशिक्षण प्राप्त करके वर्ण बदल सकता है | ब्राह्मण वर्ण को भी प्राप्त कर सकता है |

द्विज – अर्थात् जिसने दो बार जन्म लिया हो | जन्म से तो सभी शूद्र समझे गए हैं | ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय और वैश्य इन तीन वर्णों को द्विज कहते हैं क्योंकि विद्या प्राप्ति के उपरांत योग्यता हासिल करके वे समाज के कल्याण में सहयोग प्रदान करते हैं | इस तरह से इनका दूसरा जन्म ‘ विद्या जन्म’ होता है | केवल माता-पिता से जन्म प्राप्त करनेवाले और विद्याप्राप्ति में असफ़ल व्यक्ति इस दूसरे जन्म ‘ विद्या जन्म ‘ से वंचित रह जाते हैं – वे शूद्र हैं |

 अतः यदि ब्राह्मण पुत्र भी अशिक्षित है तो वह शूद्र है और शूद्र भी अपने निश्चय से ज्ञान, विद्या और संस्कार प्राप्त करके ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय या वैश्य बन सकता है | इस में माता- पिता द्वारा प्राप्त जन्म का कोई संबंध नहीं है |

आइए, हम सब सत्य ग्राही बनें, मिथ्या जातिवाद की जकड़ से मुक्त होकर एकात्म और सशक्त समाज तथा राष्ट्र का निर्माण करें | विशेष विश्लेषण के लिए पढ़ें: http://agniveer.com/4034/caste-vedas-hi/

Arya Ashfaqullah Khan – our role model


Arya Ashfaqullah Khan – Our Role Model
October 22, 2010 By Agniveer
Kindly review What does Agniveer stand for to understand the overall perspective behind any article on Agniveer site. Thanks.

N
मौत और ज़िन्दगी है दुनिया का सब तमाशा,
फरमान कृष्ण का था, अर्जुन को बीच रन में|
– अशफाक

Scene 1:

A youth was lying semi-conscious on floor uttering only ‘Hey Ram’, ‘Hey Ram’ after a stroke. People gathered around trying to revive him wondering why a devout worshipper of Allah was uttering name of Ram in such a stage! One of his friends knew the mystery and immediately brought his ‘Ram’ on scene. Only then did the young man obtain some peace and got back to life. Such was his love for Ram Prasad Bismil – the legendary mentor of a whole generation of patriotic revolutionaries. The young man was none other than Bismil’s alter-ego Ashfaqullah Khan.

Scene 2:

A gang of fanatic Muslims entered Arya Samaj, Shajhahanpur to kill Bismil and other Arya Samajis for questioning Islam and promoting Shuddhi. Ashfaqullah was also there. In fact Arya Samaj was more than his own home for Ashfaq. Immediately he stood up and took the leader of the gang at gun-point. He threatened to kill him if they did not go back. He said that to bring damage to Arya Samaj, they would have to first kill him.

Scene 3:

Ram Prasad Bismil was a devout Arya Samaji actively involved in Shuddhi movement. Ashfaq was from a conservative Muslim family. But Ashfaq was resolved to win trust and heart of Bismil. Bismil did avoid him in beginning but that could not deter Ashfaq. He knew that true worship of Allah exists only in Vedas. And for Ashfaq, that road to Vedic worship passed through Bismil – the tejasvi Brahmchari who epitomized Tawheed.

Eventually they became so close that they used to eat from same plate and Ashfaq spent more time with Bismil in Arya Samaj than his own home. The two legends together, in a way, shaped the destiny of future freedom movement.

Scene 4:

After being captured, a policeman asked Ashfaq – “Why are you working with Hindus to bring down British Empire? After all you are a Muslim.” Ashfaq replied promptly:
“Because Hindu Rashtra would be way better than British Empire!”

These are not scenes from a fictitious film but true incidents from life of one of the greatest patriots to have taken birth – Ashfaqullah Khan. While the world may have forgotten him and even Muslim leaders desist from highlighting this freedom fighter, he remains our role model.

– He was the first Muslim to willingly sacrifice his life at the gallows for sake of motherland. All at a tender age of 27. He writes that he was proud to be the first Muslim to do so and be first Muslim in his generations to serve the motherland.

It is time that our Muslim community gives birth to many such Ashfaqs and we work together with them like Bismil.

– He promised his mentor Ram Prasad Bismil to live and die with him. Eventually that became true and both great legends were hanged on same day on December 19, 1927.

– He was a true icon of Hindu-Muslim solidarity. His religion never forced him to curse an Arya Samaji – a critic of Islam – to eternal Hell. On contrary, the truthfulness and high character of Bismil made him consider Bismil as his role model and elder brother, much more dearer than his own family.

The great hero however had a very disappointing end. He was eventually captured by British because a Pathan befriended him in name of same ideology, and then informed police out of greed.

Today most Muslim organizations and leaders shy away from taking even his name. Zakir Naik will never praise Ashfaq for his sacrifice and patriotism. On contrary these perverts would believe that he might deserve Hell for doing the Shirk of writing poems on having soil of motherland even in grave, or being more closer to Arya Samaj than the mosque.

These fake leaders and representatives of Islam are acting like the treacherous Pathans for the Ashfaqs among the Muslim population. And thus Ashfaquallah Khan – one of the greatest patriots ever born in this country – is a forgotten name.

We wish that instead of terrorists like Zakir Naik, such great legends like Ashfaq become the role models for Muslim youth. Agniveer is committed to revive the era of Ashfaq and Bismil and work among our Muslim brothers and sisters to nurture many more Ashfaqs that not only make Muslim community but entire humanity proud. And also expose the fraud Pathans who want to cheat Ashfaqs of today for their petty greed.

Our humblest salute to the legacy of legendary Ashfaq – a true Arya.

Vande Mataram!

Some great thoughts of Ashfaq:

कुछ आरजू नहीं है, है आरजू तो यह
रख दे कोई ज़रा सी खाके वतन कफ़न में|
ए पुख्तकार उल्फत हुसियार, डिग ना जाना,
मराज आशकां है इस दार और रसन में|
मौत और ज़िन्दगी है दुनिया का सब तमाशा,
फरमान कृष्ण का था, अर्जुन को बीच रन में|

– It is clear that Ashfaq considered Krishna as his role model and believed in transmigration of soul which indeed is true Islam. For details, refer Islam and Rebirth.

– Is this the reason why Ashfaq is not highlighted by representatives of Islam like Zakir Naik? Because he glorified legends of India, believed in history of Mahabharat and represented the ideology of Islam that supports concepts of rebirth and patriotism – which is alien to the terrorist version of Islam who only believe in two divisions – Muslim and non-Muslim.

न कोई इंग्लिश है न कोई जर्मन,
न कोई रशियन है न कोई तुर्की|
मिटाने वाले हैं अपने हिंदी,
जो आज हमको मिटा रहे हैं||

– Again it is evident that Ashfaq considered English, Turks etc as foreigners and wanted to live, die and complain only for natives of the motherland.

बुजदिलो को ही सदा मौत से डरते देखा,
गो कि सौ बार उन्हें रोज़ ही मरते देखा|
मौत से वीर को हमने नहीं डरते देखा,
मौत को एक बार जब आना है तो डरना क्या है,
हम सदा खेल ही समझा किये, मरना क्या है|
वतन हमेशा रहे शादकाम और आज़ाद,
हमारा क्या है, अगर हम रहे, रहे न रहे||

– What could depict greater love for beloved motherland! Hats off to the great poet cum patriot! May my motherland give birth to many such Ashfaqs.

For more details, refer:

1. Autobiography of Bismil

2. Biography of Ashfaqullah Khan

3. Google Book

Hinduism: Age of the earth according to Vedic chronology


 

 

Hinduism: Age of the earth according to Vedic chronology

by Sam Hindu on Friday, July 30, 2010 at 6:36am
Hinduism:
Age of the earth according to Vedic chronology
“The Hindu religion is the only one of the world’s great faiths dedicated to the idea that the Cosmos itself undergoes an immense, indeed an infinite, number of deaths and rebirths. It is the only religion in which the time scales correspond, to those of modern scientific cosmology. Its cycles run from our ordinary day and night to a day and night of Brahma, 8.64 billion years long. Longer than the age of the Earth or the Sun and about half the time since the Big Bang. And there are much longer time scales still.”

“A millennium before Europeans were willing to divest themselves of the Biblical idea that the world was a few thousand years old, the Mayans were thinking of millions and the Hindus billions.”
Dr. Carl Sagan, (1934-1996) famous astrophysicist
According to Vedic chronology, Hinduism describes the age of the earth in detail. Details can be found in the Bhagwat Maha Purana or Bhagwatam.

Our earth is part of a material manifestation called a BRAHMANDA, a group of interrelated but separate regions or abodes called lokas, each conditioned by its respective quality of material time and space. In other words, what would be equivalent to one year in one of these lokas may be correspond to 12,000 of our earth years.

Most of our brahmandais subtle and imperceptible to us. Our earth planet is part of this configuration. A brahmanda is basically comprised of one planetary system with an earth inhabited by living beings, a sun and the above described regions.

According to the chronology of Hinduism, the divine personality who creates this with God‘s grace and who oversees it is called “Brahma” (the creator). This is a seat or position located in the subtle or celestial regions of a brahmanda (Brahma – name of the creator), anda – his spherical creation, literally ‘egg’.)

In one galaxy, there is an inestimable number of brahmandas (earth planet + other interrelated and subtle abodes) and their corresponding Brahmas.

The supreme creator or original inspiration for the creation of the entire universe is God.

How old is the earth? The earth came into existence with Brahma and will exist as long as he does. As long as Brahma lives, his creation continues to exist. When his term ends, this brahamanda will enter into absolute dissolution.

In between, there are periodic episodes of dissolution and creation of a lesser order, in which the earth enters a period of dormancy, when all life ends, but is again restored. Brahma is the personality that observes and maintains this schedule.

A soul incarnates in a particular brahmanda and remains there until its end. After this, that soul will enter another brahmanda. This has happened eternally for all the souls and will continue eternally. Only the soul who becomes liberated from maya is exempted from this.

We can calculate the age of the earth from the age of Brahma. The Vedic chronology of Hinduism uses a base unit of calculation called a chaturyugi. This is comprised of 4 yugas (periods of time). Their lengths and corresponding names are:

1,728,000 years = sat yuga

1,296,000 = treta yuga

864,000 = dwapar yuga

432,000 = kali yuga

——————————————————————————–

4,320,000 years = one charturyugi (one 4-yuga cycle)

——————————————————————————–

1000 chaturyugis = one day of Brahma

1000 chaturyugis = one night of Brahma

8,640,000,000 years = one full day (24 hours) of Brahma

100 celestial years = age that Brahma lives to

50 celestial years = Brahma’s current age, or,

155.5 trillion years = the current age of this earth. bold

OM

SWAMI VIVEKANANDA'S SPEACH At the World's Parliament of Religions, Chicago11th September, 1893:


  
SWAMI VIVEKANANDA S SPEACH At the World’s Parliament of Religions, Chicago,
11th September, 1893:
 
Sisters and Brothers of America,
It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to rise in response to the warm and cordial welcome which you have given us. I thank you in the name of the most ancient order of monks in the world; I thank you in the n…ame of the mother of religions; and I thank you in the name of millions and millions of Hindu people of all classes and sects.
My thanks, also, to some of the speakers on this platform who, referring to the delegates from the Orient, have told you that these men from far-off nations may well claim the honour of bearing to different lands the idea of toleration. I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance. We believe not only in universal toleration, but we accept all religions as true.
 
 I am proud to belong to a nation which has sheltered the persecuted and the refugees of all religions and all nations of the earth. I am proud to tell you that we have gathered in our bosom the purest remnant of the Israelites,
who came to Southern India and took refuge with us in the very year in which their holy temple was shattered to pieces by Roman tyranny.
 I am proud to belong to the religion which has sheltered and is still fostering the remnant of the grand Zoroastrian nation. I will quote to you, brethren, a few lines from a hymn which I remember to have repeated from my earliest boyhood, which is every day repeated by millions of human beings:
 “As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee.”
The present convention, which is one of the most august assemblies ever held, is in itself a vindication, a declaration to the world of the wonderful doctrine preached in the Gita: “Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths which in the end lead to me.” Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth. They have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilisation and sent whole nations to despair. Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now. But their time is come; and I fervently hope that the bell that tolled this morning in honour of this convention may be the death-knell of all fanaticism, of all persecutions with the sword or with the pen, and of all uncharitable feelings between persons wending their way to the same goal.

15th September, 1893
I will tell you a little story. You have heard the eloquent speaker who has just finished say, “Let us cease from abusing each other,” and he was very sorry that there should be always so much variance.
But I think I should tell you a story which would illustrate the cause of this variance. A frog lived in a well. It had lived there for a long time. It was born there and brought up there, and yet was a little, small frog. Of course the evolutionists were not there then to tell us whether the frog lost its eyes or not, but, for our story’s sake,

 

 
we must take it for granted that it had its eyes, and that it every day cleansed the water of all the worms and bacilli that lived in it with an energy that would do credit to our modern bacteriologists. In this way it went on and became a little sleek and fat. Well, one day another frog that lived in the sea came and fell into the well.
“Where are you from?”
“I am from the sea.”
“The sea! How big is that? Is it as big as my well?” and he took a leap from one side of the well to the other.
“My friend,” said the frog of the sea, “how do you compare the sea with your little well?”
Then the frog took another leap and asked, “Is your sea so big?”
“What nonsense you speak, to compare the sea with your well!”
“Well, then,” said the frog of the well, “nothing can be bigger than my well; there can be nothing bigger than this; this fellow is a liar, so turn him out.”
That has been the difficulty all the while.
I am a Hindu. I am sitting in my own little well and thinking that the whole world is my little well.
 
 The Christian sits in his little well and thinks the whole world is his well.
 
The Mohammedan sits in his little well and thinks that is the whole world.
 
 I have to thank you of America for the great attempt you are making to break down the barriers of this little world of ours, and hope that, in the future, the Lord will help you to accomplish your purpose.

Read at the Parliament on 19th September, 1893
Three religions now stand in the world which have come down to us from time prehistoric — Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Judaism. They have all received tremendous shocks and all of them prove by their survival their internal strength.

 
But while Judaism failed to absorb Christianity and was driven out of its place of birth by its all-conquering daughter, and a handful of Parsees is all that remains to tell the tale of their grand religion, sect after sect arose in India and seemed to shake the religion of the Vedas to its very foundations,
 but like the waters of the seashore in a tremendous earthquake it receded only for a while, only to return in an all-absorbing flood, a thousand times more vigorous, and when the tumult of the rush was over, these sects were all sucked in, absorbed, and assimilated into the immense body of the mother faith.
From the high spiritual flights of the Vedanta philosophy, of which the latest discoveries of science seem like echoes, to the low ideas of idolatry with its multifarious mythology, the agnosticism of the Buddhists, and the atheism of the Jains, each and all have a place in the Hindu’s religion.
Where then, the question arises, where is the common centre to which all these widely diverging radii converge? Where is the common basis upon which all these seemingly hopeless contradictions rest? And this is the question I shall attempt to answer.
The Hindus have received their religion through revelation, the Vedas. They hold that the Vedas are without beginning and without end. It may sound ludicrous to this audience, how a book can be without beginning or end.
 
 But by the Vedas no books are meant. They mean the accumulated treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in different times. Just as the law of gravitation existed before its discovery, and would exist if all humanity forgot it, so is it with the laws that govern the spiritual world.
 
 The moral, ethical, and spiritual relations between soul and soul and between individual spirits and the Father of all spirits, were there before their discovery, and would remain even if we forgot them.
The discoverers of these laws are called Rishis, and we honour them as perfected beings. I am glad to tell this audience that some of the very greatest of them were women. Here it may be said that these laws as laws may be without end, but they must have had a beginning. The Vedas teach us that creation is without beginning or end. Science is said to have proved that the sum total of cosmic energy is always the same. Then, if there was a time when nothing existed, where was all this manifested energy? Some say it was in a potential form in God.
 
 In that case God is sometimes potential and sometimes kinetic, which would make Him mutable. Everything mutable is a compound, and everything compound must undergo that change which is called destruction. So God would die, which is absurd. Therefore there never was a time when there was no creation.
If I may be allowed to use a simile, creation and creator are two lines, without beginning and without end, running parallel to each other. God is the ever active providence, by whose power systems after systems are being evolved out of chaos, made to run for a time and again destroyed. This is what the Brâhmin boy repeats every day: “The sun and the moon, the Lord created like the suns and moons of previous cycles.” And this agrees with modern science.
Here I stand and if I shut my eyes, and try to conceive my existence, “I”, “I”, “I”, what is the idea before me? The idea of a body. Am I, then, nothing but a combination of material substances? The Vedas declare, “No”. I am a spirit living in a body. I am not the body. The body will die, but I shall not die. Here am I in this body; it will fall, but I shall go on living. I had also a past. The soul was not created, for creation means a combination which means a certain future dissolution. If then the soul was created, it must die. Some are born happy, enjoy perfect health, with beautiful body, mental vigour and all wants supplied. Others are born miserable, some are without hands or feet, others again are idiots and only drag on a wretched existence. Why, if they are all created, why does a just and merciful God create one happy and another unhappy, why is He so partial? Nor would it mend matters in the least to hold that those who are miserable in this life will be happy in a future one. Why should a man be miserable even here in the reign of a just and merciful God?
In the second place, the idea of a creator God does not explain the anomaly, but simply expresses the cruel fiat of an all-powerful being. There must have been causes, then, before his birth, to make a man miserable or happy and those were his past actions.
Are not all the tendencies of the mind and the body accounted for by inherited aptitude? Here are two parallel lines of existence — one of the mind, the other of matter. If matter and its transformations answer for all that we have, there is no necessity for supposing the existence of a soul. But it cannot be proved that thought has been evolved out of matter, and if a philosophical monism is inevitable, spiritual monism is certainly logical and no less desirable than a materialistic monism; but neither of these is necessary here.
We cannot deny that bodies acquire certain tendencies from heredity, but those tendencies only mean the physical configuration, through which a peculiar mind alone can act in a peculiar way. There are other tendencies peculiar to a soul caused by its past actions. And a soul with a certain tendency would by the laws of affinity take birth in a body which is the fittest instrument for the display of that tendency. This is in accord with science, for science wants to explain everything by habit, and habit is got through repetitions. So repetitions are necessary to explain the natural habits of a new-born soul.
 
And since they were not obtained in this present life, they must have come down from past lives.
There is another suggestion. Taking all these for granted, how is it that I do not remember anything of my past life ? This can be easily explained. I am now speaking English. It is not my mother tongue, in fact no words of my mother tongue are now present in my consciousness; but let me try to bring them up, and they rush in. That shows that consciousness is only the surface of the mental ocean, and within its depths are stored up all our experiences. Try and struggle, they would come up and you would be conscious even of your past life.
This is direct and demonstrative evidence. Verification is the perfect proof of a theory, and here is the challenge thrown to the world by the Rishis. We have discovered the secret by which the very depths of the ocean of memory can be stirred up — try it and you would get a complete reminiscence of your past life.
So then the Hindu believes that he is a spirit. Him the sword cannot pierce — him the fire cannot burn — him the water cannot melt — him the air cannot dry. The Hindu believes that every soul is a circle whose circumference is nowhere, but whose centre is located in the body, and that death means the change of this centre from body to body.
 
 Nor is the soul bound by the conditions of matter. In its very essence it is free, unbounded, holy, pure, and perfect. But somehow or other it finds itself tied down to matter, and thinks of itself as matter.
Why should the free, perfect, and pure being be thus under the thraldom of matter, is the next question. How can the perfect soul be deluded into the belief that it is imperfect? We have been told that the Hindus shirk the question and say that no such question can be there. Some thinkers want to answer it by positing one or more quasi-perfect beings, and use big scientific names to fill up the gap. But naming is not explaining.
 
The question remains the same. How can the perfect become the quasi-perfect; how can the pure, the absolute, change even a microscopic particle of its nature? But the Hindu is sincere. He does not want to take shelter under sophistry. He is brave enough to face the question in a manly fashion; and his answer is: “I do not know. I do not know how the perfect being, the soul, came to think of itself as imperfect, as joined to and conditioned by matter.
 
” But the fact is a fact for all that. It is a fact in everybody’s consciousness that one thinks of oneself as the body. The Hindu does not attempt to explain why one thinks one is the body. The answer that it is the will of God is no explanation. This is nothing more than what the Hindu says, “I do not know.”
Well, then, the human soul is eternal and immortal, perfect and infinite, and death means only a change of centre from one body to another. The present is determined by our past actions, and the future by the present. The soul will go on evolving up or reverting back from birth to birth and death to death. But here is another question:
 
 Is man a tiny boat in a tempest, raised one moment on the foamy crest of a billow and dashed down into a yawning chasm the next, rolling to and fro at the mercy of good and bad actions — a powerless, helpless wreck in an ever-raging, ever-rushing, uncompromising current of cause and effect; a little moth placed under the wheel of causation which rolls on crushing everything in its way and waits not for the widow’s tears or the orphan’s cry?
 
The heart sinks at the idea, yet this is the law of Nature. Is there no hope? Is there no escape? — was the cry that went up from the bottom of the heart of despair. It reached the throne of mercy, and words of hope and consolation came down and inspired a Vedic sage, and he stood up before the world and in trumpet voice proclaimed the glad tidings:
 
 “Hear, ye children of immortal bliss! even ye that reside in higher spheres! I have found the Ancient One who is beyond all darkness, all delusion: knowing Him alone you shall be saved from death over again.” “Children of immortal bliss” — what a sweet, what a hopeful name! Allow me to call you, brethren, by that sweet name —
 
 heirs of immortal bliss — yea, the Hindu refuses to call you sinners.
 
 Ye are the Children of God, the sharers of immortal bliss, holy and perfect beings. Ye divinities on earth — sinners! It is a sin to call a man so; it is a standing libel on human nature. Come up, O lions, and shake off the delusion that you are sheep; you are souls immortal, spirits free, blest and eternal; ye are not matter, ye are not bodies; matter is your servant, not you the servant of matter.
Thus it is that the Vedas proclaim not a dreadful combination of unforgiving laws, not an endless prison of cause and effect, but that at the head of all these laws, in and through every particle of matter and force, stands One “by whose command the wind blows, the fire burns, the clouds rain, and death stalks upon the earth.”
And what is His nature?
He is everywhere, the pure and formless One, the Almighty and the All-merciful. “Thou art our father, Thou art our mother, Thou art our beloved friend, Thou art the source of all strength; give us strength. Thou art He that beareth the burdens of the universe; help me bear the little burden of this life.” Thus sang the Rishis of the Vedas. And how to worship Him? Through love.
 
“He is to be worshipped as the one beloved, dearer than everything in this and the next life.”
This is the doctrine of love declared in the Vedas, and let us see how it is fully developed and taught by Krishna, whom the Hindus believe to have been God incarnate on earth.
He taught that a man ought to live in this world like a lotus leaf, which grows in water but is never moistened by water; so a man ought to live in the world — his heart to God and his hands to work.
It is good to love God for hope of reward in this or the next world, but it is better to love God for love’s sake, and the prayer goes: “Lord, I do not want wealth, nor children, nor learning. If it be Thy will, I shall go from birth to birth, but grant me this, that I may love Thee without the hope of reward — love unselfishly for love’s sake.
” One of the disciples of Krishna, the then Emperor of India, was driven from his kingdom by his enemies and had to take shelter with his queen in a forest in the Himalayas, and there one day the queen asked him how it was that he, the most virtuous of men, should suffer so much misery.
 Yudhishthira answered, “Behold, my queen, the Himalayas, how grand and beautiful they are; I love them. They do not give me anything, but my nature is to love the grand,
 
 the beautiful, therefore I love them. Similarly, I love the Lord. He is the source of all beauty, of all sublimity. He is the only object to be loved; my nature is to love Him, and therefore I love. I do not pray for anything; I do not ask for anything. Let Him place me wherever He likes. I must love Him for love’s sake. I cannot trade in love.”
The Vedas teach that the soul is divine, only held in the bondage of matter; perfection will be reached when this bond will burst, and the word they use for it is therefore, Mukti — freedom, freedom from the bonds of imperfection, freedom from death and misery.
And this bondage can only fall off through the mercy of God, and this mercy comes on the pure. So purity is the condition of His mercy. How does that mercy act? He reveals Himself to the pure heart; the pure and the stainless see God, yea, even in this life; then and then only all the crookedness of the heart is made straight. Then all doubt ceases. He is no more the freak of a terrible law of causation. This is the very centre, the very vital conception of Hinduism. The Hindu does not want to live upon words and theories. If there are existences beyond the ordinary sensuous existence, he wants to come face to face with them.
 
 If there is a soul in him which is not matter, if there is an all-merciful universal Soul, he will go to Him direct. He must see Him, and that alone can destroy all doubts. So the best proof a Hindu sage gives about the soul, about God, is: “I have seen the soul; I have seen God.” And that is the only condition of perfection. The Hindu religion does not consist in struggles and attempts to believe a certain doctrine or dogma, but in realising — not in believing, but in being and becoming.
Thus the whole object of their system is by constant struggle to become perfect, to become divine, to reach God and see God, and this reaching God, seeing God, becoming perfect even as the Father in Heaven is perfect, constitutes the religion of the Hindus.
And what becomes of a man when he attains perfection? He lives a life of bliss infinite. He enjoys infinite and perfect bliss, having obtained the only thing in which man ought to have pleasure, namely God, and enjoys the bliss with God.
So far all the Hindus are agreed. This is the common religion of all the sects of India; but, then, perfection is absolute, and the absolute cannot be two or three. It cannot have any qualities. It cannot be an individual. And so when a soul becomes perfect and absolute, it must become one with Brahman, and it would only realise the Lord as the perfection, the reality, of its own nature and existence, the existence absolute, knowledge absolute, and bliss absolute. We have often and often read this called the losing of individuality and becoming a stock or a stone.
“He jests at scars that never felt a wound.”
I tell you it is nothing of the kind. If it is happiness to enjoy the consciousness of this small body, it must be greater happiness to enjoy the consciousness of two bodies, the measure of happiness increasing with the consciousness of an increasing number of bodies, the aim, the ultimate of happiness being reached when it would become a universal consciousness.
Therefore, to gain this infinite universal individuality, this miserable little prison-individuality must go. Then alone can death cease when I am alone with life, then alone can misery cease when I am one with happiness itself, then alone can all errors cease when I am one with knowledge itself; and this is the necessary scientific conclusion.
 
Science has proved to me that physical individuality is a delusion, that really my body is one little continuously changing body in an unbroken ocean of matter; and Advaita (unity) is the necessary conclusion with my other counterpart, soul.
Science is nothing but the finding of unity.
 
 As soon as science would reach perfect unity, it would stop from further progress, because it would reach the goal. Thus Chemistry could not progress farther when it would discover one element out of which all other could be made. Physics would stop when it would be able to fulfill its services in discovering one energy of which all others are but manifestations, and the science of religion become perfect when it would discover Him who is the one life in a universe of death, Him who is the constant basis of an ever-changing world. One who is the only Soul of which all souls are but delusive manifestations. Thus is it, through multiplicity and duality, that the ultimate unity is reached. Religion can go no farther. This is the goal of all science.
All science is bound to come to this conclusion in the long run. Manifestation, and not creation, is the word of science today, and the Hindu is only glad that what he has been cherishing in his bosom for ages is going to be taught in more forcible language, and with further light from the latest conclusions of science.
Descend we now from the aspirations of philosophy to the religion of the ignorant. At the very outset, I may tell you that there is no polytheism in India. In every temple, if one stands by and listens, one will find the worshippers applying all the attributes of God, including omnipresence, to the images. It is not polytheism, nor would the name henotheism explain the situation. “The rose called by any other name would smell as sweet.” Names are not explanations.
I remember, as a boy, hearing a Christian missionary preach to a crowd in India. Among other sweet things he was telling them was that if he gave a blow to their idol with his stick, what could it do? One of his hearers sharply answered, “If I abuse your God, what can He do?” “You would be punished,” said the preacher, “when you die.” “So my idol will punish you when you die,” retorted the Hindu.
The tree is known by its fruits. When I have seen amongst them that are called idolaters, men, the like of whom in morality and spirituality and love I have never seen anywhere, I stop and ask myself, “Can sin beget holiness?”
Superstition is a great enemy of man, but bigotry is worse. Why does a Christian go to church? Why is the cross holy? Why is the face turned toward the sky in prayer? Why are there so many images in the Catholic Church? Why are there so many images in the minds of Protestants when they pray?
 
 My brethren, we can no more think about anything without a mental image than we can live without breathing. By the law of association, the material image calls up the mental idea and vice versa. This is why the Hindu uses an external symbol when he worships. He will tell you, it helps to keep his mind fixed on the Being to whom he prays. He knows as well as you do that the image is not God, is not omnipresent. After all, how much does omnipresence mean to almost the whole world? It stands merely as a word, a symbol. Has God superficial area? If not, when we repeat that word “omnipresent”, we think of the extended sky or of space, that is all.
As we find that somehow or other, by the laws of our mental constitution, we have to associate our ideas of infinity with the image of the blue sky, or of the sea, so we naturally connect our idea of holiness with the image of a church, a mosque, or a cross. The Hindus have associated the idea of holiness, purity, truth, omnipresence, and such other ideas with different images and forms. But with this difference that while some people devote their whole lives to their idol of a church and never rise higher, because with them religion means an intellectual assent to certain doctrines and doing good to their fellows, the whole religion of the Hindu is centred in realisation.
 
 Man is to become divine by realising the divine. Idols or temples or churches or books are only the supports, the helps, of his spiritual childhood: but on and on he must progress.
He must not stop anywhere. “External worship, material worship,” say the scriptures, “is the lowest stage; struggling to rise high, mental prayer is the next stage, but the highest stage is when the Lord has been realised.” Mark, the same earnest man who is kneeling before the idol tells you, “Him the Sun cannot express, nor the moon, nor the stars, the lightning cannot express Him, nor what we speak of as fire; through Him they shine.” But he does not abuse any one’s idol or call its worship sin. He recognises in it a necessary stage of life. “The child is father of the man.” Would it be right for an old man to say that childhood is a sin or youth a sin?
If a man can realise his divine nature with the help of an image, would it be right to call that a sin? Nor even when he has passed that stage, should he call it an error. To the Hindu, man is not travelling from error to truth, but from truth to truth, from lower to higher truth. To him all the religions, from the lowest fetishism to the highest absolutism, mean so many attempts of the human soul to grasp and realise the Infinite, each determined by the conditions of its birth and association, and each of these marks a stage of progress; and every soul is a young eagle soaring higher and higher, gathering more and more strength, till it reaches the Glorious Sun.
Unity in variety is the plan of nature, and the Hindu has recognised it. Every other religion lays down certain fixed dogmas, and tries to force society to adopt them. It places before society only one coat which must fit Jack and John and Henry, all alike. If it does not fit John or Henry, he must go without a coat to cover his body. The Hindus have discovered that the absolute can only be realised, or thought of, or stated, through the relative, and the images, crosses, and crescents are simply so many symbols — so many pegs to hang the spiritual ideas on.
 
 It is not that this help is necessary for every one, but those that do not need it have no right to say that it is wrong. Nor is it compulsory in Hinduism.
One thing I must tell you. Idolatry in India does not mean anything horrible. It is not the mother of harlots. On the other hand, it is the attempt of undeveloped minds to grasp high spiritual truths. The Hindus have their faults, they sometimes have their exceptions; but mark this, they are always for punishing their own bodies, and never for cutting the throats of their neighbours. If the Hindu fanatic burns himself on the pyre, he never lights the fire of Inquisition. And even this cannot be laid at the door of his religion any more than the burning of witches can be laid at the door of Christianity.
 

May He who is the Brahman of the Hindus, the Ahura-Mazda of the Zoroastrians, the Buddha of the Buddhists, the Jehovah of the Jews, the Father in Heaven of the Christians, give strength to you to carry out your noble idea! The star arose in the East; it travelled steadily towards the West, sometimes dimmed and sometimes effulgent, till it made a circuit of the world; and now it is again rising on the very horizon of the East, the borders of the Sanpo, a thousandfold more effulgent than it ever was before.
Hail, Columbia, motherland of liberty! It has been given to thee, who never dipped her hand in her neighbour’s blood, who never found out that the shortest way of becoming rich was by robbing one’s neighbours, it has been given to thee to march at the vanguard of civilisation with the flag of harmony.

Christians must always be ready for good criticism, and I hardly think that you will mind if I make a little criticism. You Christians, who are so fond of sending out missionaries to save the soul of the heathen — why do you not try to save their bodies from starvation?

 
 In India, during the terrible famines, thousands died from hunger, yet you Christians did nothing. You erect churches all through India, but the crying evil in the East is not religion — they have religion enough — but it is bread that the suffering millions of burning India cry out for with parched throats.
 
They ask us for bread, but we give them stones. It is an insult to a starving people to offer them religion; it is an insult to a starving man to teach him metaphysics.
 
 In India a priest that preached for money would lose caste and be spat upon by the people. I came here to seek aid for my impoverished people, and I fully realised how difficult it was to get help for heathens from Christians in a Christian land.

26th September, 1893

I am not a Buddhist, as you have heard, and yet I am. If China, or Japan, or Ceylon follow the teachings of the Great Master, India worships him as God incarnate on earth. You have just now heard that I am going to criticise Buddhism, but by that I wish you to understand only this. Far be it from me to criticise him whom I worship as God incarnate on earth.

 
 But our views about Buddha are that he was not understood properly by his disciples. The relation between Hinduism (by Hinduism, I mean the religion of the Vedas) and what is called Buddhism at the present day is nearly the same as between Judaism and Christianity. Jesus Christ was a Jew,
 
 and Shâkya Muni was a Hindu. The Jews rejected Jesus Christ, nay, crucified him, and the Hindus have accepted Shâkya Muni as God and worship him. But the real difference that we Hindus want to show between modern Buddhism and what we should understand as the teachings of Lord Buddha lies principally in this:
 
Shâkya Muni came to preach nothing new. He also, like Jesus, came to fulfil and not to destroy. Only, in the case of Jesus, it was the old people, the Jews, who did not understand him, while in the case of Buddha, it was his own followers who did not realise the import of his teachings.
 
 As the Jew did not understand the fulfilment of the Old Testament, so the Buddhist did not understand the fulfilment of the truths of the Hindu religion.
 
 Again, I repeat, Shâkya Muni came not to destroy, but he was the fulfilment, the logical conclusion, the logical development of the religion of the Hindus.
The religion of the Hindus is divided into two parts: the ceremonial and the spiritual. The spiritual portion is specially studied by the monks.In that there is no caste. A man from the highest caste and a man from the lowest may become a monk in India, and the two castes become equal. In religion there is no caste; caste is simply a social institution. Shâkya Muni himself was a monk, and it was his glory that he had the large-heartedness to bring out the truths from the hidden Vedas and through them broadcast all over the world. He was the first being in the world who brought missionarising into practice — nay, he was the first to conceive the idea of proselytising.
The great glory of the Master lay in his wonderful sympathy for everybody, especially for the ignorant and the poor. Some of his disciples were Brahmins. When Buddha was teaching, Sanskrit was no more the spoken language in India. It was then only in the books of the learned. Some of Buddha’s Brahmins disciples wanted to translate his teachings into Sanskrit, but he distinctly told them, “I am for the poor, for the people; let me speak in the tongue of the people.” And so to this day the great bulk of his teachings are in the vernacular of that day in India.
Whatever may be the position of philosophy, whatever may be the position of metaphysics, so long as there is such a thing as death in the world, so long as there is such a thing as weakness in the human heart, so long as there is a cry going out of the heart of man in his very weakness, there shall be a faith in God.
On the philosophic side the disciples of the Great Master dashed themselves against the eternal rocks of the Vedas and could not crush them, and on the other side they took away from the nation that eternal God to which every one, man or woman, clings so fondly. And the result was that Buddhism had to die a natural death in India. At the present day there is not one who calls oneself a Buddhist in India, the land of its birth.
But at the same time, Brahminism lost something — that reforming zeal, that wonderful sympathy and charity for everybody, that wonderful heaven which Buddhism had brought to the masses and which had rendered Indian society so great that a Greek historian who wrote about India of that time was led to say that no Hindu was known to tell an untruth and no Hindu woman was known to be unchaste.
Hinduism cannot live without Buddhism, nor Buddhism without Hinduism. Then realise what the separation has shown to us, that the Buddhists cannot stand without the brain and philosophy of the Brahmins, nor the Brahmin without the heart of the Buddhist. This separation between the Buddhists and the Brahmins is the cause of the downfall of India.
 
That is why India is populated by three hundred millions of beggars, and that is why India has been the slave of conquerors for the last thousand years. Let us then join the wonderful intellect of the Brahmins with the heart, the noble soul, the wonderful humanising power of the Great Master.

ADDRESS AT THE FINAL SESSION27th September, 1893

The World’s Parliament of Religions has become an accomplished fact, and the merciful Father has helped those who laboured to bring it into existence, and crowned with success their most unselfish labour.
My thanks to those noble souls whose large hearts and love of truth first dreamed this wonderful dream and then realised it. My thanks to the shower of liberal sentiments that has overflowed this platform. My thanks to his enlightened audience for their uniform kindness to me and for their appreciation of every thought that tends to smooth the friction of religions. A few jarring notes were heard from time to time in this harmony.

 
My special thanks to them, for they have, by their striking contrast, made general harmony the sweeter. Much has been said of the common ground of religious unity. I am not going just now to venture my own theory. But if any one here hopes that this unity will come by the triumph of any one of the religions and the destruction of the others, to him I say, “Brother, yours is an impossible hope.” Do I wish that the Christian would become Hindu? God forbid. Do I wish that the Hindu or Buddhist would become Christian? God forbid.
The seed is put in the ground, and earth and air and water are placed around it. Does the seed become the earth; or the air, or the water? No. It becomes a plant, it develops after the law of its own growth, assimilates the air, the earth, and the water, converts them into plant substance, and grows into a plant.
Similar is the case with religion. The Christian is not to become a Hindu or a Buddhist, nor a Hindu or a Buddhist to become a Christian. But each must assimilate the spirit of the others and yet preserve his individuality and grow according to his own law of growth. If the Parliament of Religions has shown anything to the world it is this: It has proved to the world that holiness, purity and charity are not the exclusive possessions of any church in the world, and that every system has produced men and women of the most exalted character. In the face of this evidence, if anybody dreams of the exclusive survival of his own religion and the destruction of the others, I pity him from the bottom of my heart, and point out to him that upon the banner of every religion will soon be written, in spite of resistance: “Help and not Fight,” “Assimilation and not Destruction,” “Harmony and Peace and not Dissension.”

See More 

To the Hindu, then, the whole world of religions is only a travelling, a coming up, of different men and women, through various conditions and circumstances, to the same goal. Every religion is only evolving a God out of the material man, and the same God is the inspirer of all of them. Why, then, are there so many contradictions? They are only apparent, says the Hindu. The contradictions come from the same truth adapting itself to the varying circumstances of different natures.
It is the same light coming through glasses of different colours. And these little variations are necessary for purposes of adaptation. But in the heart of everything the same truth reigns. The Lord has declared to the Hindu in His incarnation as Krishna, “I am in every religion as the thread through a string of pearls. Wherever thou seest extraordinary holiness and extraordinary power raising and purifying humanity, know thou that I am there.” And what has been the result? I challenge the world to find, throughout the whole system of Sanskrit philosophy, any such expression as that the Hindu alone will be saved and not others. Says Vyasa, “We find perfect men even beyond the pale of our caste and creed.” One thing more. How, then, can the
Hindu, whose whole fabric of thought centres in God, believe in Buddhism which is agnostic, or in Jainism which is atheistic?
The Buddhists or the Jains do not depend upon God; but the whole force of their religion is directed to the great central truth in every religion, to evolve a God out of man. They have not seen the Father, but they have seen the Son. And he that hath seen the Son hath seen the Father also.
This, brethren, is a short sketch of the religious ideas of the Hindus. The Hindu may have failed to carry out all his plans, but if there is ever to be a universal religion,
it must be one which will have no location in place or time; which will be infinite like the God it will preach, and whose sun will shine upon the followers of Krishna and of Christ, on saints and sinners alike; which will not be Brahminic or Buddhistic, Christian or Mohammedan, but the sum total of all these, and still have infinite space for development; which in its catholicity will embrace in its infinite arms, and find a place for, every human being, from the lowest grovelling savage not far removed from the brute, to the highest man towering by the virtues of his head and heart almost above humanity, making society stand in awe of him and doubt his human nature. It will be a religion which will have no place for persecution or intolerance in its polity, which will recognise divinity in every man and woman, and whose whole scope, whose whole force, will be created in aiding humanity to realise its own true, divine nature.
Offer such a religion, and all the nations will follow you. Asoka’s council was a council of the Buddhist faith. Akbar’s, though more to the purpose, was only a parlour-meeting. It was reserved for America to proclaim to all quarters of the globe that the Lord is in every religion.

 

The Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War 4th Dec. 7571


  5561 BC +2010 AC  =  7571                                                       

The Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War

By Dr.P.V.Vartak

<< Index

 

Introduction

Inscriptions

Aihole inscription

Borala Hisse inscription of Deva Sena

Greek records

Shrimad bhagwat

Yudhishtira Era and Kaliyug

Saptarishis

Equinox

Astrology

Archeaology

The exact date of Mahabharat War

Saturn

Rahu

Jupiter

Mars

Heliocentric and geocentric

Leap year

Uranus

Neptune

Pluto

Additional evidence

Conclusion

Appendix

References

Introduction

The Mahabharat has excercised a continuous and pervasive influence on the Indian mind for milleniums. The Mahabharat, orginally written by Sage Ved Vyas in Sanskrut, has been translated and adapted into numerous languages and has been set to a variety of interpretations. Dating back to “remote antiquity”, it is still a living force in the life of the Indian masses.

Incidently, the dating of the Mahabharat War has been a matter of challenge and controversy for a century or two. European scholars have maintained that the events described in the ancient Sanskrut texts are imaginary and subsequently, the Mahabharat derived to be a fictitiou tale of a war fought between two rivalries. Starting from the so- called Aryan invasion into Bharat, the current Bharatiya chronology starts from the compilation of the Rigved in 1200 B.C., then come other Ved’s, Mahaveer Jain is born, then Gautam Buddha lives around 585 B.C. and the rest follows. In the meantime, the Brahmanas, Samhi- tas, Puranas, etc. are written and the thought contained therein is well-absorbed among the Hindu minds. Where does the Ramayan and Mahabharat fit in ? Some say that the Ramayan follows Mahabharat and some opine otherwise. In all this anarchy of Indian histography, the date of the Mahabharat (the mythical story!) ranges between 1000 B.C.to 300 B.C. Saunskrut epics were academically attacked occasion- ally – an attempt to disprove the authencity of the annals noted therein. For example, the European Indologiest Maxmuller, tried the interpret the astronomical evidences to prove that the observations recorded in the Hindu scriptures are imaginary, probably because it did not match the prevelant views of European historians!

On the contrary, many Bharatiya scholars have vehemently maintained the actual occurance of the Mahabharat War. Astronomical and literary evidences or clues from the Pauranic and Vaidik texts have been deci- phered to provide a conclusive date for the Mahabharat War. The fifth century mathematician, Aryabhatta, calculated the date of the Mahabharat War to be approximately 3100 B.C. from the planetary posi- tions recorded in the Mahabharat. Prof. C.V. Vaidya and Prof. Apte had derived the date to be 3101 B.C. and Shri. Kota Venkatachalam reckoned it to be 3139 B.C. However, the astronomical data used by the above, and many other, scholars contained some errors as examined by a scho- lar from Pune, Dr. P.V. Vartak. Using astronomical references and variety of other sources, Dr. Vartak has derived the date of the ini- tiation of the Mahabharat War to be 16th October 5561 B.C. This pro- posed date has been examined by a few scholars and has been verfied. This may prove to be a break-through in deciding the chronology of the events in the history of Bharat (and probably the World).

In the following few posts, I have made an attempt to provide a glance at the proofs provided by Dr. Vartak in propounding the date of the very important landmark in the history of Bharat (World?), i.e., Mahabharat War. Only major points have been extracted from two sources: Dr.P.V. Vartak’s Marathi book “Swayambhu” and “Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War” in English.

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Inscriptions

Some scholars rely on the various inscriptions found in the temples and elsewhere to fix the date of Mahabharat War. If there is no other alternative then this method is tolerable, otherwise it is not reli- able because all the known inscriptions are dated as far back as 400 AD. Those who prepared those inscriptions were not conversant with the scientific methods available now in the modern Science Age. So, why should we depend on the conjectures of the ancient people? Why not use scientific methodology to come to the conclusion ourselves? I will prefer the use of the modern scientific ways to fix the date of Mahabharat War rather than to rely on the Inscriptions which are vague and inconclusive. Let us examine two famous inscriptions always quoted by the scholars.

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Aihole inscription

All the scholars have relied on this inscription found in the Jain Temple at Aihole prepared by one Chalukya King Pulakeshi. It says, according to scholars, that the temple was constructed in 30+3000+700+5 = 3735 years, after the Bharat War and 50+6+500 = 556 years of Shaka era in Kali era. Today Shaka era is 1910. Hence 1910- 556 = 1354 years ago the temple was constructed. Thus the year of inscribing this note is 634 AD. At this time 3735 years had passed from the Bharat War. So the date of the War comes to 3101 BC. This is also the date of Kali Yuga Commencement. Naturally, it is evident that relying on the beginning of Kaliyuga Era and holding that the War took place just before the commencement of Kaliyuga, this inscription is prepared. It is obvious from the Mahabharat that the War did not happen near about the beginning of Kaliyuga. (I have considered this problem fully at a later stage.) If we can see that the inscription is prepared by relying on some false assumption, we have to neglect it because it has no value as an evidence. Moreover the interpretation done by the scholars is doubtful because they have not considered the clauses separately and they held Bharat War and Kali Era as one and the same.

The verse inscribed is :

Trinshatsu Trisahasreshu Bhaaratdahavaditaha | Saptabda Shatayukteshu Gateshwabdeshu Panchasu | Panchashatasu Kalaukale Shatasu Panchashatsu cha | Samatsu Samatitasu Shakaanamapi Bhoobhujaam ||

I would like to interprete the verse considering the clauses of the verse. It says “3030 years from the Bharat War” in the first line, ( Trinshatsu Trisahasreshu Bhaaratdahavaaditaha) where the first clause oF the sentence ends. in the second line, the second clause starts and runs upto the middle of the third line thus ( Saptabda…..Kalaukale) This means 700+5+50 = 755 years passed in the Kali Era. The remaining third clause is ( Shatasu

Here the verse does not specifically say the Shalivahan Shaka but Scholars have taken granted that it is Shalivahan Shaka without any base or reasoning. The verse may have mentioned some other Shaka kings from ancient era. So we we neglect the doubtful part of the Shaka counting which is useless and adhere to the Kali era expressly mentioned. It is clear from the former portion of the verse that 3030 years passed from the Bharat War and 755 years passed from Kali Era. Kali Era started from 3101 BC. 755 years have passed so 3101-755 = 2346 BC is the year when 3030 years had passed from the Bharat War. So 2346+3030 = 5376 BC appears to be the date of Bharat War.

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Hisse Borala inscription of Deva Sena

This inscription is of 5th century AD and scholars hold that it throws light on the time of Mahabharat War. It states. that Saptarshis were in Uttara at the time of this inscription. Scholars hold that Saptarshis were in Magha at the time of Yudhishthira because Varahmihira has stated so in Brihat-Samhita. Scholars also hold that Yudhishthira’s time is 3137 BC. Saptarshis stay in one Nakshtra for 100 years, and there are 27 Nakshatras. Hence Saptarshis would be again in Magha 2700 years later during 4th century BC. From here if we count upto 5th century AD there fall eight Nakshatras. Hence in the 5th century AD, Saptarshis should be in Anuradha and not Uttara. From Anuradha to Uttara Ashadha there is adifference of five Naksha- tras, while from Anuradha to Uttara Phalguni there is a difference of six Nakshatras. So it is quite evident that at the time of Yudhisthira Saptarshis were not in Magha as held by the scholars. Here I have shown a mistake of five to six hundreds of years. More- over, there are three ‘Uttaras’ and the inscription has not stated specifically which Uttara it denotes. Thus this source is unreliable and should be rejected.

I have considered Saptarshi Reckoning in details at a later stage on page 11. While going to examine the sources scientifically, I shall give the honour of the first place to Astronomy. One may question that how far Astronomy was advanced in those olden days? I say affir- matively that Astronomy was far advanced in the ancient times, and the ancient Indian sages had perfected the science of time measure- ment relying on Astronomy.

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Greek records

1. “The Greek Ambassodor Magasthenis has recorded that 138 generations have passed between Krishna and Chandragupta Maurya. Many scholars have taken this evidence, but taking only 20 years per generation they fixed the date of Krishna as 2760 years before Chandragupta. But this is wrong because the record is not of ordinary people to take 20 years per generation. In the matter of general public, one says that when a son is born a new generation starts. But in the case of kings, the name is included in the list of Royal Dynasty only after his corona- tion to the throne. Hence, one cannot allot 20 years to one king. We have to find out the average per king by calculating on various Indian Dynasties. I have considered 60 kings from various dynasties and calculated the average of each king as 35 years. Here is a list of some of important kings with the no. of years ruling.

Chandragupta Mourya 330-298 B.C. 32 years
Bindusar 298-273 B.C. 25 years
Ashok 273-232 B.C. 41 years
Pushyamitra Shunga 190-149 B.C. 41 years
Chandragupta Gupta 308-330 A.D. 22 years
Samudragupta 330-375 A.D. 45 years
Vikramaditya 375-414 A.D. 39 years
Kumargupta 414-455 A.D. 41 years
Harsha 606-647 A.D. 41 years
    327 years

The average is 327/9 = 36.3 years.

Multiplying 138 generations by 35 years we get 4830 years before Chan- dragupta Mourya. Adding Chandrgupta’s date 320 B.C. to 4830 we get 5150 B.C. as the date of Lord Krishna.

2. Megasthenis, according to Arian, has written that between Sandro- cotus to Dianisaum 153 generations and 6042 years passed. From this data, we get the average of 39.5 years per king. From this we can cal- culate 5451 years for 138 generations. So Krishna must have been around 5771 B.C.

3. Pliny gives 154 generations and 6451 years between Bacchus and Alexander. This Bacchus may be the famous Bakasura who was killed by Bhimasena. This period comes to about 6771 years B.C.

Thus Mahabharat period ranges from 5000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.

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Shrimad bhagwat

a) Bhagwat gives 28 Kaurava kings from Parikshit to Kshemaka. “From Kshemaka, the Pandava Dynasty will end in Kaliyug, and Magadha Dynasty will start.” [Bhagwad 9-22-45]. This implies that the Pandava kings ruled before the advent of Kaliyug, i.e., before 3101 B.C and Magadha dynasty will not super-impose the Pandava Dynasty.

b) Further it is stated in Bhagwat that after 28 Kaurava kings, Magadha Dynasty would rule and 22 Magadha kings would govern for 1000 years. Here it is given a average of 1000 years for 22 kings. It can be found that the 28 Kaurava kings would have ruled for 1273 years and then Magadha Dynasty started with King Sahadeva, whose son was Somapi. On the other hand, Maghasandhi was the son of Sahadeva and the grand- son of Jarasandha [Ashwamedh-82]. many scholars have neglected this fact and have assumed that this Sahadeva fought in the Mahabharat War and was the son of Jarasandha.

c) Ripunjaya is the last king in the list of 22 Magadhas. But Bhagwat 12.1.2-4 mentions that Puranjaya will be the last king who will be killed by his minister Shunak. It is to be noted that there is no men- tion of the kings between Ripunjaya and Puranjaya. People have wrongly taken the two names as that of one and the same person, without any evidence.

d) Bhagwat 12.1.2-4 state that Shunak would coronate his son Pradyota as the King and later five Kings would rule for 138 years. After this Pradotya Dynasty, Shishunga Kings, 10 in number, would rule for 360 years. Thereafter 9 Nandas would rule for 100 years. Nanda would be destroyed by a Brahmin and Chandragupta would be enthroned. We know that Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne in 324 B.C. So we can thus calculate backwards:

9  Nandas 100 years
10 Shishungas  360 years
5  Pradotyas 138 years
22 Magadhas 1000 years
28 Kauravas 1273 years
74 Kings  2871 years

We find here only 74 kings, but Megasthenes tells us about 138 kings. So 138-74=64 kings are missing. These may be from the period between Ripunjaya and Puranjaya. Thus calculating from the data of 74 kings who ruled for 2871 years, we get a period of 2496 years for 64 kings. Adding the two we get 5367 years for 138 kings. This is preceding Chandragupta’s time, who came to throne in 324 B.C. Hence, 324+5367 = 5691 B.C. is the approximate date of Parikshit.

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Yudhishtira Era and Kaliyug

Scholars accept the date of the Mahabharat War to be 3100 B.C. which also happens to the initiation of the Yudhisthira Era. But this Era, is mentioned nowhere in the Mahabharat text itself! At the time of Aswamedha of Yudhisthira, Vyas has given descriptions in minute detail like collection of “Sruva”, formation of wells and lakes, but never has written even a word about, such an important event, as the begin- ning of the Yudhisthira Era.

Mahabharat also never mentions anything about the beginning of the Kaliyug, even at the time of Krishna’s death. Mahabharat Adiparva 2.13 states that the War took place in the interphase (“Antare”) of the Dwapaar and Kali Eras. Thus it makes it clear that the evening of the Dwapaar has not yet ended and the Kaliyug had not started when the War took place.

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Saptarishis

Bhagwat states at 12.2.27-32 that Saptarishis stay 100 years in one Nakshatra. At the time of King Parikshit, the Saptarishis were in Magha. When they proceeded to Purvashadha, Kali would start. There are 11 Nakshatras from Magha to Purvashadha. Hence it is seen that Shukacharya tells Parikshit that after 1100 years Kaliyug will start. Kaliyug started at 3101 B.C. Hence 3101 + 1100 = 4201 B.C. is the date of Parikshit.

Other references from Shrimad Bhagwat points quite closely to the same year as above.

But who is this Parikshit ? Is he the son of Abhimanyu ? No. A minute observation of this reveals that the above is not Abhimanyu’s son because Bhagwat is told to this Parikshit. On the other hand, Mahabharat is told to Janamejaya. In the Mahabharat, Parikshit’s death has been recorded. Hence it is evident that Mahabharat was written and published after the death of Parikshit, the son of Abhimanyu. Bhagwat is written after Mahabharat according to the Bhagawat itself. This Bhagwat is told to some Parikshit. How can this Parikshit be the son of Abhimanyu who died before the Mahabharat writing ? So this Parikshit appears to be somebody else than Abhimanyu’s son.

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Equinox

Mahabharat mentions the ancient tradition as ‘Shravanadini Nakshatrani’,i.e., Shravan Nakshatra was given the first place in the Nakshatra- cycle (Adi-71/34 and Ashvamedh 44/2) Vishwamitra started counting the Nakshatras from Shravan when.he created ‘Prati Srushti’. He was angry with the old customs. So he started some new customs. Before Vishvamitra’s time Nakshatras were counted from the one which was occupied by the sun on the Vernal Equinox. Vishvamitra changed this fashion and used diagonally opposite point i.e. Autumnal Equinox to list the Nakshtras. He gave first place to Shravan which was at the Autumnal Equinox then. The period of Shravan Nakshatra on autumnal equinox is from 6920 to 7880 years B.C. This was Vishvamitra’s period at the end of Treta yuga. Mahabharat War took place at the end of Dwapar yuga. Subtracting the span of Dwapar Yuga of 2400 years we get 7880 – 2400 = 5480 B.C. as the date of Mahabharat War.

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Astrology

Some scholars rely on the horoscope of Lord Krishna to calculate his birth-date so as to establish the period of Mahabharat. But they do not realise that the horoscope is a forged one, prepared many thousand years after Krishna’s death. Mahabharat Bhagvat and Vishnu purana have not given the planet positions at the time of Krishna’s birth. It is well-known and is recorded in many scriptures that Krishna was born in a jail, then who could have casted his horoscope? Moreover Krishna was not a prince so nobody would have casted his horoscope. Hence it is not wise to rely on the horoscope. It is prepared recently by consid- ering the charateristics of Krishna and so is useless to fix the birth-date.

Mr. G.S. Sampath Iyengar and Mr. G.S. Sheshagiri have fixed the birth-date of Krishna as 27th July 3112 BC. ‘The horoscope shows Lagna and Moon 52 deg. 15′ Rohini, Jupiter 91 deg. 16′ Punarvasu, Sun 148 deg. 15′ Uttara Phalguni, Mercury 172 deg. 35′ Hasta, Venus 180 deg. 15′ Chitra, Saturn 209 deg. .57′ Vishakha, Mars 270 deg. 1′ Uttara Ashadha Rahu, 160 deg. 1′.

At present on 27th July 1979 the Sun was at 99 deg. 57′, while at Krishna’s birth, according to their opinion, the sun was at 148 deg. 15′. The difference is 48 deg. 18’. This shows that the Sun has receded back by 48 deg. 18′ due to the precession at the rate of 72 years per degree. multiplying 48 deg. 18′ by 72 we get 3456 years. This shows that Krishna was born 3456 years ago or substracting 1979 from it we can say that Krishna was born during 1477 BC. Thus 3112 BC is found to be wrong. We cannot accept such a wrong date derived from a manipulated borscope. (This horoscope is printed in “The Age of Bharat War” on page 241-Publisher, Motilal Banarasidas 1979).

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Archeaology

In 1971, when I hinted at the date of Mahabharat war as 5500 years BC, Archeaologists frowned at me saying it as impossible because no cul- ture was found in India dating so much back. But now evidences are pouring in Archeaology itself showing cultures in India upto 30000 to 40000 years BC. Padmashri Late Mr. V.S. Wakankar has dated the paint- ings in the caves of Bhimbetaka of Madhya Pradesh to about 40000 BC.

Recently Dr. S.B. Rao, Emeritus Scientist of the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, has discovered under the sea, Dwaraka and dated it as between 5000 to 6000 BC. This news has been published by all the leading newspapers on 22th October 1988.

Motilal Banarasidas News Letter October 1988 gives a news on page 6 under the heading “50,000 year old Relics” as follows:

Spectacular culture and physical relics dating back to 50,000 years BC have been excavated from the Central Narmada Valley in Madhya Pradesh. A team of Anthropological survey of India recently con- ducted the excavation. It explored sites in two districts Sebore and Hoshangabad.

In my book “Vastava Ramayan” I have shown the presence of culture in India as far back as 72000 years B.C. This recent news points to that ancient period. I am sure after some time Arecheaology may get evi- dence to show the presence of culture in India 72000 BC.

In Vastava Ramayan I have shown that Bali, the demon king went to south America during 17000 BC when the vernal equinox was at Moola Nakshatra. MLBD News letter Oct. 1988 gives a news thus :-“Dravidians in America” – According to a press report the Brazillian nuclear phy- sicist and researcher Arysio Nunes dos santos holds that the Dravi- dians of South India reached America much before Christopher Columbus.

Mr. Nunes dos Santos, of the’ Federal University of Minas Gerais maintains that the Dravidians colonised a vast South American region 11000 years before the Europians reached the new world. Vestiges of the Dravidian presence in America, he says, include the strange phonetics of Gourani, Paraguay’s national language. Moreover Bananas, Pine Apple, Cocunut and Cotton, all grown in India could have been taken to America by those navigators.

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The exact date of Mahabharat War

16th october 5561 year B.C.

Harivansh (Vishnu Purana A. 5) states that when Nanda carried Krishna to Gokul on Shravan Vadya Navami day, there was dry cow-dung spread all over the ground and trees were cut down. The presence of Dry Cowdung all over in Gokul indicates the presence of Summer in the month of Shravan. Trees are usually cut down in Summer to be used as fuel in the rainy season. The seasons move one month backwards in two thousand years. Today the rainy season starts in Jeshtha but two thousand years ago, at the time of KaIidas, rainy season used to start in Ashadha. At the time of Krishna’s birth the Summer was in the month of Shravan while today it is in Vaishakha. Thus the summer is shifted by four months, hence Krishna’s period comes to 4×2000 = 8000 years ago approximately. This means about 6000 years B.C., the same period we have seen above.

At the time of Mahabharat, the Vernal Equinox was at Punarvasu. Next to Punarvasu is Pushya Nakshtra. Vyas used “Pushyadi Ganana” for his Sayan method, and called Nirayan Pushya as Sayan Ashvini. He shifted the names of further Sayan Nakshtras accordingly. At that time Winter Solstice was on Revati, so Vyas gave the next Nakshatra Ashvini the first palee in the Nirayan list of Nakshatras. Thus he used Ashvinyadi Ganana for the Nirayan method. Using at times Sayan names and at times Nirayan names of the Nakshatras, Vyas prepared the riddles. By the clue that Nirayan Pushya means Sayan Ashvini, it is seen that Nirayan names of Nakshatras are eight Nakshatras ahead of the Sayan names Thus the Saturn in Nirayan Purva, and Sayan Rohini, Jupiter was in Nirayan Shravan, and Sayan Swati (near Vishakha), while the Mars was in Nirayan Anuradha, and Sayan Magha, Rahu was between Chitra and Swati, by Sayan way means it was in Nirayana. Uttara Ashadha (8 Nakshtras ahead). From these positions of the major planets we can calculated the exact date. My procedure is as follows:

I found out that on 5th May 1950, the Saturn was in Purva Phalguni. From 1950 I deducted 29.45 years to get the year 1920 when the Saturn was again in Purva. In this way I prepared a vertical column of the years when the Saturn was in Purva. Similarly, I prepared vertical columns of the years when the Jupiter was in Shravan and Rahu in Uttara Ashadha. Then I searched in horizontally to find out the year common in all the three columns. It was 5561-62 B.C. when all the three great planets were at the required places. Then I proceded for the detailed calculations.

Bhisma expired at the onset of Uttarayan i.e. on 22nd December. This is a fixed point according to the modern Scientific Calendar. He was on the arrow-bed for 58 nights and he had fought for ten days. Hence 68 days earlier than 22nd December the War had started. This shows that the War started on 16th October. We have to calculate the plane- tary positions of 16th October 5561 B.C.

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Saturn

Encyclopedia of Astronomy by Larousse states that one rotation of Saturn takes 26 years and 166 days. One year means 365.25 days. So the Saturn’s round takes 29.4544832 years.

5th May 1950, Saturn conjugated with Purva. We have to see its posi- tion in 5561 years B.C. 5561+1950 = 7511 years. 7511 divided by 29.4544832 gives 255.00362 rounds. This means that Saturn completed 255 rounds and has gone ahead by 0.00362 or 1.3 degrees. Hence Saturn was in conjugation with Purva on 5th May 5561 B.C. On 16th October’ 5562nd B.C. i.e. 164 days later it must have travelled (0.0334597 degrees (daily pace) multiplied by 164 days =) 5.487 degrees. So Saturn was at 141 degrees or in Purva Nakshatra.

In October 1962, Saturn was at 281 dgrs. 1962 + 5561 = 7523 years. 7523 devided by 29.4544832 gives 255.41103 turns. After completing 255 full turns, Saturn has gone back by 0.411003 turn i.e. 148 dgrs. 281-148= 133 degrs. This was the position of Saturn in Purva.

Calculating from 1931 or 1989 also Saturn appears at 141 dgrs. in Purva. Thus on 16th of October 5562nd B.C. Saturn was in Purva as told by Vyas in Mahabharat.

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Rahu

Rahu takes 18.5992 years per rotation. It was at 132 dgrs. on 16th Oct. 1979. 1979 + 5561 = 7540, divided by 18.5992 gives 405.39378 turns. 0.39378 turns means 141.7 dgrs. Rahu always goes in reverse direction. We have to go in the past, so adding 141.7 to orginal 132 we get 273 dgrs. This is Uttarashadha where Rahu was situated (by Nirayan method).

Calculations from 1989, 1962 and 1893 confirm Rahu in Uttara Ashadha.

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Jupiter

Jupiter takes 11.863013 years per rotation. On 16th October 1979, it was at 129 dgrs. 1979+5561 = 7540. 7540 divided by 1.863013 gives 635.58892 turns. 0.58892 turn means 212 dgrs. So Jupiter was 212 dgrs behind the orginal position. 129 – 212 = -83. -83 means 360 – 83 = 277 degree 277 dgrs is the position of the star of Shravan. So Jupiter was in conjugation with Shravan. The span of Shravan is 280 deg. to 293 deg.

Calculations from 1989, 1932 and 1977 show Jupiter in 285 and 281 degrees or in the zone of Shravan. This confirms the position told by Vyas.

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Mars

Mars takes 1.88089 years per rotation. On 16th October 1979, Mars was at 108 dgrs. 1979 + 5561 = 7540 yrs. 7540 divided by 1.88089 gives 4008.7405 turns. 0.7405 turns means 266 dgrs., Mars was 266 dgrs behind the original position of 108 deg. 108 – 266 = 158. 360 – 158 = 202 deg. This is just beyond the star of Vishakha which is at 200 dgrs. Though in Vishakha-zone Mars has crossed the Star of Vishakha and intends to go in Anuradha, so the description of Vyas as “Anurad- ham Prarthayate” that it requests or appeals Anuradha, appears to be correct.

Calculations from 1962 and 1900 show Mars at 206 and’ 208 dgrs and therefore though in Vishakha, it can be called as appealing Anuradha “Anuradham Prarthayate”. Thus it is seen that Vyas has used tricky but correct terms. He has not written any false statement because he was the Truth-abiding Sage.

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Heliocentric and geocentric

Here an expert may raise a question whether I have used Heliocentric method or Geocentric method. I make it clear here that I have used the Heliocentric method that means I have considered the rotations of planets around the Sun. But after fixing the position of the planet around the Sun I have also seen where that planet will be seen from the earth.

I would like the scholars to consider one more point here. When I say that an insect is sitting near one o’ clock position on your watch or clock, one may think that the insect is between 12 and 1 while other may think that it is between 1 and 2. So the span to find that insect is from 12 to 2. Similarly Vyas has mentioned the Nakshatra in the vicinity of the planet and therefore we have a scope of one Nakshatra on either side to find out the planet. Thus if our answer is between +13 deg. and -13 deg. from the given position we are successful. In my calculations I have achieved the perfect positions, but by chance, somebody gets a different position he is requested to consider a span of -,+ 13 degrees. The positions given by other scholars are far away than the positions recorded by Vyas, so they are not acceptable.

I request the scholars, to be careful while doing calculations not to take a retrograde position of the present planet, because that may give a false position. Please note that all the planets become retro- grade only apparently when our earth is approaching them. We need not consider their retrograde motion each year because their rotational periods around the Sun are fixed and in that they are seen retrograde from the earth apparently. We have to see if the last position of the planet is retrograde. This can be done easily by considering the position of the Sun and planet. Any external planet becomes retrograde when it is in the house from 5th to 9th from the Sun.

Leap year

Please note that i have taken 365.25 days for a solar year. It covers the general leap years, but it does not take into account the leap years abandoned at centuries. At the interval of 400 years leap years are taken according to the modern scientific calendar. If these cen- tury years are considered, there may be an error of 50 days in 7500 years duration. As for dates these 50 days are automatically accounted for because we have taken the winter solstice as fixed on 22nd December, and it is referred by Vyas, while describing Bhishma’s death. As far as the planets like Saturn, Rahu and Jupiter are con- cerned 50 days are immaterial because in 50 days the Saturn will move only 1.6 deg. while Jupiter 4.1 deg. as an average. Hence their error is negligible.

Now, we have seen that all the four important planets satisfy their positions as told by Vyas on 16th October 5562nd B.C. Hence we have no other way but to accept this date as the exact date of Mahabharat War.

Please note that, so far, not a single Scholar has shown a date with the planetary positions satisfying the description by Vyas in Mahabharat. Late Mr. C. V. Vaidya and Prof. Apte show 3102 B.C., but their Mars is in Ashadha, Jupiter is in Revati, Saturn in Shatataraka and Rahu in Jeshtha. Prof. K. Shrinivasraghavan, Mr. Sam- pat Ayangar and Sheshagiri show 3067 B.C. but they put Jupiter and Saturn in Rohini and Sun, Rahu, Mars in Jeshtha. Garga, Varahmihir and Tarangini show 2526 Before Shaka i.e. 2449 B.C. But their Mars comes in Dhanishtha, Jupiter and Saturn in Bharani and Rahu in Hasta. P.C. Sengupta gives 2448 with Saturn 356 deg., Jupiter 8 deg., Mars 157 deg., Venus 200 deg., Sun 200 deg., (Ancient Indian chronology” Calcutta University). The Western scholars as well as Romeshchandra Datta and S. B. Roy show 1424 B.C. but their Saturn is in Shata- taraka, Jupiter in Chitra, Rahu in Purva and Sun in Anuradha with no eclipse. Billandi Ayer shows 1193 years B.C. but his Mars comes in Mula, Jupiter in Purva Bhadrapada, Saturn in Purva Ashadha and Rahu in Punarvasu. At 900 B.C. as is proposed by many other scholars, Jupiter comes in Mula, Rahu in Vishakha and Saturn in Jeshtha. Thus not a single scholar could coroborate his date with the facts written by Vyas.Hence, their dates have to be dismissed. (C. V. Vaidya’s Upasamhar page 94.” Age of Mahabharat War”).

I have shown all the planetary positions correct to the description of Mahabharat. In addition I have shown that the seasons tally with my date, and the seasons never tally with other dates. I have solved all the planetary riddles from Mahabharat which nobody could dare. So 16th October 5562nd BC. is the exact date of the first day of the Mahabharat War. At the beginning of the War, Vyas promised Dhrutarashtra that he will write history of the Kauravas; so most probably Vyas must have written the Astronomical data immediately.

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Uranus (known to Vyas in 5561 B.C)

All the planets, viz., Sun, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn and Rahu show correct positions mentioned in the Mahabharat on 16th December 5561 B.C. This must be the exact date of the Mahabharat War. After pin-pointing the exact date, it struck to me that the three additional planets mentioned with positions by Vyas, may be Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Vyas has named them as Shveta, Shyama and Teevra. Let us see if the conjecture is correct. We have to prove this with the help of Mathematics, because we have to go scientifically.

Vishesheena hi Vaarshneya Chitraam Pidayate Grahah….[10-Udyog.143]
Shevtograhastatha Chitraam Samitikryamya Tishthati….[12-Bheeshma.3]

In these two stanzas, Vyas states that some greenish white (Shveta) planet has crossed Chitra. This means that the planet was in Swati (or Vishakha, because Chitra and Swati are close together). This is the Sayan position hence Nirayan position is eight Nakshatras ahead in Shravan (or Dhanishtha). Neelakantha calls this “Mahapata” which means having greater orbit. Greater orbit indicates a planet beyond Saturn. Hence I assumed Shveta to be Uranus. Let us calculate and see if this true.

In October 1979, Uranus was at 206 degrees. Uranus takes 84.01 years per rotation. 1979 + 5561 = 7540. 7540/84.01 = 89.75122 turns. 0.75122 rotation means 270.4392 degrees. 206-270 = -64 = 296 degrees. This comes in the zone of Dhanishtha, but the star of Dhanishtha is at 297 degrees, so the position given by Vyas is confirmed. Hence Shveta must be Uranus.

In October 1883, Uranus was at 151 degrees. 1883 + 5561 = 7444 years. 7444/84.01 = 86.608498 rotations. 0.608498 turn means 219 degrees. 151-219 = 292 degrees. This is Shravan Nakshatra. So Uranus was in Shravan during Mahabharat War as stated by Vyas under the name of “Shveta”.

1930 calculations show Uranus to be at 292.54 degrees or Shravan. Thus our mathematics proves that Vyas has given correct position of Uranus under the name of Shveta. This proves that Vyas had the knowledge of Uranus under the name of Shveta, supposed to have recently discovered by Herschel in 1781. Shveta means greenish white. Uranus is actually greenish white in colour. So Vyas must have seen Uranus with this own eyes. Uranus is of 6th magnitude and is visible to the naked eye according to the modern science.

Neelakantha of 17th century also had the knowledge of Uranus or Shveta. He writes in his commentary on Mahabharat (Udyog 143) that Shveta, or Mahapata was a famous planet in the Astronomical science of India. Neelakantha was about 100 years before Herschel, who sup- posedly discovered Uranus. So we can conclude that one hundred before Herschel, Uranus was known to the Indian Astronomers and Vyas had discovered it at or before 5561 year B.C.

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Neptune (was known to Vyas in 5561 B.C.)

In 1781 A.D., Herschel discovered Uranus; but its calculated positions never corroborated with the actual positions. So the experts thought of another planet beyond Uranus. They fixed its position by mathemat- ics, and at that site, it was discovered by German Astronomers in 1846 A.D. I have found that Neptune is also mentioned by Vyas in Mahabharat, under the name of “Shyama”.

Shukrahah Prosthapade Poorve Samaruhya Virochate Uttare tu Parikramya Sahitah Samudikshyate….[15-Bheeshma.3] Shyamograhah Prajwalitah Sadhooma iva Pavakah Aaindram Tejaswi Naksha- tram Jyesthaam Aakramya Tishthati…[16-Bheeshma.3]

Here Vyas says that there was some luminary with Venus in Poorva Bha- drapada. He adds further that a bluish white (Shyama) planet was in Jyeshtha and it was smoky (Sadhoom). Saayan Jyeshta means Nirayan Poorva Bhadrapada, so this is the description of one and the same planet named by Vyas as Shyama. Neelkantha calls it “Parigha” in his commentary on Mahabharat. Parigha means circumference, so this planet may be at the circumference of our solar system.; and so may be Nep- tune. Let us see by Mathematics is this statement is true. We will determine the position of Neptune on 16th December 5561 B.C.

Neptune takes 164.78 years per rotation. It was at 234 degrees in 1979. 1979 + 5561 = 7540 years. 7540 divided by 164.78 gives 45.75798 rotations. 0.75798 turn means 272.87 degrees. 234 – 272.87 = -38.87 = 321.13 degrees. This is the site of Poorva Bhadrapada. So Neptune was in Poorva-Bhadrapada during 5561 B.C.

In 1948, Neptune was at 172 degres. 1948 + 5561 = 7509. 7509/164.78 gives 45.56985 turns. 0.56985 turn means 205 degrees. 172-205 = -33 =360-33 = 327 deg. This is the zone of Poorva Bhadrapada.

In 1879, Neptune was at 20 degrees. 1879 + 5561 = 7440 years. 7440 divided by 164.78 gives 45.15111 turns. 0.15111 turn means 54.39 deg. 20 – 54.39 = -34.39 = 360 – 34.39 = 325.61 degrees. This is Poorva- Bhadrapada.

Thus the position of Shyama or Parigha is factually proved in the case of Neptune. Thus, we conclude that Vyas did know Neptune too. Vyas might have got his knowledge by Yogic Power or by Mathematics or by using telescopic lenses. Mathematics was far advanced then, that is why ancient Indian sages fixed the rate of precession of Equinoxes accurately. Even the world famous scientist Gamov praised the sages for their remarkable work in Mathematics. So could have mathematically calculated the position of Shyama or Neptune.

Mirrors are mentioned in the Mahabharat. So lenses too might have been present at that time. They had Microscopic Vision (Shanti A. 15,308). As microscopic vision was present, there might be telescopes too. Planets can be seen with mirrors as well as lenses. Vyas must have “seen” Neptune; its proof lies in the fact that he says that it is bluish white (Shyama). Neptune is, in fact, bluish white in colour. Hence we conclude that Neptune was known to Vyas in 5561 B.C.

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Pluto (was also known to Vyas in 5561 B.C)

Krittikaam Peedayan Teekshnaihi Nakshatram……[30-Bheeshma.3]

Vyas states that there was one Nakshatra, i.e, some immobile liminary troubling Krittika (Pleides) with its sharp rays. This “star” in Krit- tika must have been some “planet”. It must have been stationary for many years, that is why Vyas called it Nakshatra which means a thing that does not move according to Mahabharat itself [Na Ksharati Iti Makshatram].

Hence the Nakshatra was a planet moving very slowly like pluto which takes nine years to cross one Nakshatra of 13 degrees. My assumption that this Nakshatra was Pluto gets confirmed by B.O.R.I (Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute?) Edition which states thus :

Krittikasu Grahasteevro Nakshatre Prathame Jvalan…… [26- Bhishma.3]

Some editions mention ‘Grahasteekshnah’. Thus Teevra, Teekshana and Nakshatra are the names of one and the same planet (graha) which was in Krittlka in 5561 B.C. Let us see if Vyas has given these names to Pluto and if Pluto was in Krittika. It is stated that Krittika was troubled with sharp rays by that planet – this indicates that it was Nirayan Krittika.

Pluto was at 175 degrees in 1979. It takes 248 years per rotation. 1979+5561=7540 years. 7540 divided by 248 gives 30.403223 turns. 0.403223 turn means 145 degrees. 175 – 145 = 30 degrees. This is the site of Krittika. Thus it is proved beyond doubt that Vyas bas men- tioned the position of Pluto, which was discovered to the modern world in 1930. Vyas could have used his Yogic Vision or mathematical brain or a lens or some other device to discover Teevra, Teekshna’ or Nakshatra or Pluto.

Thus all the three so-called ‘New’ planets are discovered from Mahabharat. It is usually held that before the discovery of Herschel in 1781 AD, only five planets were known to the world. This belief is wrong because Vyas has mentioned ‘seven Great planets’, three times in Mahabharat.

Deepyamanascha Sampetuhu Divi Sapta Mahagrahah….[2-Bhishma.17]

This stanza states that the seven great planets were brilliant and shining; so Rahu and Ketu are out of question. Rahu and Ketu are described as Graha’ 23 meaning Nodal points. (Parus means a node). Evidently Rahu and Ketu are not included in these seven great planets. The Moon also is not included, because it was not visible on that day of Amavasya with Solar Eclipse. From the positions discovered by me and given by Vyas it is seen that Mars, Sun, Mercury, Jupiter, Uranus, Venus and Neptune were the seven great planets accumulated in a small field extending from Anuradha to Purva Bhadrapada. So they appeared to Ved-Vyas as colliding with each other, during total solar eclipse.

Nissaranto Vyadrushanta Suryaat Sapta Mahagrahah….[4-Karna 37].

This stanza clearly states that these seven great planets were ‘seen’ moving away from the Sun. As these are ‘seen’, Rahu and Ketu are out of question. This is the statement of sixteenth day of the War, naturally the Moon has moved away from the Sun. Hence, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Uranus, Venus and Neptune are the seven great planets mentioned by Vyas.

Praja Samharane Rajan Somam Sapta grahah Iva……[22-Drona 37].

Here again seven planets are mentioned, excluding the Moon.

Even if we do not consider the planetary positions, from the above three stanzas, it is clear that seven planets are mentioned which do not include the Sun, Moon, Rahu and Ketu. Naturally the conclusion is inevitable that Vyas did know Uranus (Shveta) and Neptune (Shyama) as planets.

If they were known from 5561 years B.C. then why they got forgotten ? The answer is simple, that these two planets, Uranus and Neptune were not useful in predicting the future of a person. So they lost impor- tance and in the course of time they were totally forgotten. But, in any case, Neelakantha from 17th century knew these two planets very weIl. Neelakantha is about a hundered years ancient than Her- schel, and he writes that Mahapata (Uranus) is a famous planet in the Astronomical science of India. He also mentions the planet ‘Parigha’ i.e. Neptune. 22 So both were known in India, at least one Hundered years before Herschel. Vyas is 7343 years ancient than Herschel, but still he knew all the three planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

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Additional evidence

Kshaya or Vishvaghasra Paksha

A fortnight of only thirteen days is told by Vyasa which occured just before the great War. Such a fortnight comes at the interval of 22 years. Calculations show that at 5562nd B.C. Kshaya Paksha did occur. It had occured 1962 and 1940. 1962+5562 = 7524 is completely divisi- ble by 22.

Amavasya confirmed

Krishna and Karna fixed the day of War on Amavasya (Udyog 142). Vyas also indicates in Bhishma 2 & 3 that the War started on the day second Amayasya, because two successive Amavasyas appeared then. Bhishma died on the day after 67 (58+9) nights from the onset of the War, on the occasion Uttarayan i.e. 22nd December. So the War must have commenced on 16th October. Let us see if Amavasya comes on this day.

In 1979, Amavasya was on 21st of October. Amavasyas repeat after the intervals of 29.53058 days. The Lunar year is of 354.367 days while the Solar year is 365.25 days. 1979+5561 = 7540 multiplied by 365.25 and divided by 354.367 gives 7771.5616 Lunar years. 0.5616 Lunar year means 199.0125 days. 199.0125 divided by 29.53058 gives 6.7392005. This indicates that 6 Amavasyas are completed and 0.7392005 lunar month or 22 days are left. These 22 days are left for 21st October and we have to go behind upto 16th October. So adding these 6 days to 22 we get 28 days. After 28 days Amavasya can occur. After 29 days it always occurs. Thus on 15th and 16th October 5562nd year B.C, there were two successive amavasyas as mentioned by Vyas.

Another method gives the same conclusion. At the interval of 19 years the Amavasya falls on the same date. 19×365.25 divided by 29.53058 gives 235.00215. So in 19 years 235 Amavasya are completed. I found that on 17th October 1963, there was an Amavasya. 1963+5561 = 7524 divided by 19 gives 396. This division is complete, so there was an Amavasya. Thus it is established that Vyas has reported Amavasya correctly.

Eclipses

Vyas has mentioned that there was Solar as well as Lunar eclipses in one month at the time of Mahabharat War. Calculations confirm that in October 5561 year B.C, both the Solar and Lunar eclipses did occur. Rahu and Ketu were in Uttara Ashadha at 273 deg. & 279 deg. so total eclipse of the Sun took place on the Margashirsha Amavasya day Only 13 days earlier, according to Vyasa, there was Pournirma with lunar eclipse, causing pallor of the Moon. Thirteen days earlier the sun would have been 13 deg. behind at (279 – 13 =) 266 in Purva Ashadha. It was Pournima so the Moon was diagonally opposite at (266-180=) 86 deg. in Punarvasu, just beyond Mruga, so it was Margashirsha Pournima though it is wrongly or enigmatically told to be Kartika Pournima. Rahu was at 273 deg., so Ketu was diagonally opposite in Punarvasu, so the ellipse of the moon was possible which was not total.

A Big comet

Vyas has mentioned that at the time of Mahabharat War a big comet was seen just beyond Pushya Nakshtra. There are many comets. Indian Astro- nomical works refer to more than 500 comets, but big comets are very few. Haley’s comet is one of the big comets which comes at the regu- lar intervals of 77 years. It was seen in 1910 and 1987. If we add 1910+5561 = 7271. 7271 is divisible completely by 77. Evidently it seems that it was Haley’s comet was seen at the Mahabharat War.

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Conclusion

All the twelve planets confirm their said positions on 16th October 5561 years B.C. along with two Amavasyas, two eclipses, Kshaya Paksha and a Comet. Thus, in all 18 mathematical positions fix the same date. Therefore, we have to accept this date of the Mahabharat War, if we want to be scientific. Please note that all the twelve planets will come in the same positions again only after 2229 crores of years. That means it will never happen again in the life of our earth, because life of the earth is only 400 crores of years. So the date of the Mahabharat War is pin-pointed as 16th October 5561 B.C.

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Appendix

Hereunder is provided a short table dates of important Mahabharat events in years. (Dates and Tithis in years in Rama Samvat assuming Shri Rama Samvat 1st January. 1 equivalent to 1st Jan 7323 B.C. Rama’s birth date has been conclusively proved to be 4th Dec. 7323 B.C.( “Vastav Ramayan“).

Event Date      
Going to forest 4th Sept. 5574 BC
Kitmeet Killed 7th Sept. 5574 BC 
Going underground 19th May 5562  BC 
Keechak killed 1st April 5561 BC 
Anukeechak-Massacre 2nd April 5561 BC 
End of secret life 9th April 5561 BC 
Cows stolen 15th April 5561 BC 
Arjuna exposed 16th April 5561 BC 
All pandavas exposed 19th April 5561 BC 
Marriage of Uttara & Abhimanyu 4th May.
Krishna set out for a treaty 27th Sept.
Stay at Upaplavya 27th Sept.
Stay at Vrukshthala 28th Sept.
Dinner to Brahmins 29th Sept.
Entry into Hastinapur 30th Sept.
Krishna meets Kunti etc. 1st Oct.
Invited for meeting 2nd Oct.
First meeting 3rd Oct.
Second meeting and an attempt to arrest Krishna. 4th Oct.  
Third meeting Vishvaroopa 7th Oct.
Stay at Kunti 8th Oct.
Krishna meets Karna. War fixed 9th Oct.
Krishna returns 9th Oct.
Pandavas preparation Balaram’s visit 11th Oct. 
Mahabharat war started 16th Oct.
Abhimanyu killed 28th Oct. 5561 BC.
End of War 2nd November 5561 B.C.
Yudhishthira crowned 16th Nov. 5551 BC.
Bhishma expired 22nd Dec. 5561 BC
Pandava campaign for wealth 15th Jan. 5560 BC 
Parikshita born 28th Jan. 5560 BC
Pandavas return 25th Feb. 5560 BC
Ashvamedh Deeksha 1st March 5560 BC
Return of Arjuna Horse 15th Jan. 5560 BC
Ashvamedh yajna 22nd Feb. 5559 BC
Dhrutarashtra went to fores 18th Aug. 5545 BC
Pandavas visited Kunti. Vidura expired 18th Aug. 5543 BC
Death of Kunti, Dhrutarashtra and Gandhari Sept./Oct. 5541 BC
Yadava Massacre 5525 B.C.
Parikshit Dead 5499 B.C.

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References

P.V.Vartak, Swayambhu (in Marathi), Ved Vidnyana Mandal, Pune

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The documentary movie “Krishna: History or Myth” made by Dr Manish Pandit of Saraswati Films (also the person behind the nascent “Do Homam Yourself” movement) is available now in lower resolution for a free viewing onhttp://tinyurl.com/krishnareal (tinyurl dot com slash krishnareal) orhttp://www.saraswatifilms….org/movies.phpGururbrahmaa gururvishnuh gururdevo Maheswarah |
Guruh-saakshaat parabrahma tasmai shrigurave namah ||

Om,

SCIENTIFIC MEANING OF SHIVA RATRI :


SCIENTIFIC MEANING OF SHIVA RATRI :
Human body is susceptible for the changes in the cyclical motions of the moon and sun.
  

The impact of these changes are closely documented by the advanced researchers in the field of bio farming and organic farming.

The ascent and descent of the moon have the impact on the growth of the plants and all cellular structures, including on the germination of the plants.

Human  body also undergoes very subtle cellular and molecular changes during this time.

Most of the lung and respiratory infections are possible during this time.

According to Ayur Veda the Bilwa Leaves have a power full preventive medicine for all the Respiratory Diseases including the Cardiac Problems.

Using them with hand and smelling the smell of these leaves involves the aroma therapy.

Shiva lingas is found to have a specific property of resonating the cosmic vibrations.

Water has a peculiar property of called colloidal property. This enhances the water molecules to change their bond angles when came in to contact with the cosmic resonances and to increase their energy which then becomes powerful medicine. The abhisheka of the Shiva Lingas is to do this complicated exercises for the benefit of the mankind.

The mantras used in the Abhisheka or in the worship are definite energy states which produce a specified quantum of energy if recited. This energy is absorbed by the molecules of he body and they in turn radiate heightened infrared band of energies.

These energies radiated are picked up by the Acu Points or Adharas which distribute the energy for all the systems of the body for the energy correction.

That is the reason why the Rudra Namakam, Chamakam and Mahanyasam and other powerful Vedic Mantras are recited on this Maha Shiva Rathri Day.

Click here for seeing Dwadaslingas and doing Abishekam
http://www.mypurohith.com/shivarathri.html

Credite to My Facebook friend Paresh Trivedi..
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